What’s in a Name? The Search for Lewis B. Taylor of Brunswick County, Virginia

LBT Signature

By Fred D. Taylor

For decades, a number of Taylor family researchers have worked tirelessly to determine the parents of Lewis B. Taylor of Brunswick County, Virginia, who was born circa 1772 and died before December 1831.

When my father and I first began our own family tree quest in the early 1990s, this mystery was a source of almost heated debate among our cousins, spanning from family researchers very close to the source in Brunswick County, all the way out to the West Coast, and everywhere in between.  To say the search was both dedicated and committed is an understatement.  Countless hours were spent by dozens of individuals in libraries and courthouses across Virginia and North Carolina in hopes of untangling this genealogical roadblock.  From there, professional genealogists were employed to put an independent set of eyes on the project.  When that failed (or rather, did not succeed), researchers in the family decided a new route – that of DNA testing, at that time (the mid 2000s) a research tool in its infancy.

Through all of that, the ultimate goal of learning more about Lewis B. Taylor, and more importantly his parents, remained elusive.  During this time and up to recent years, I remained in the peripheral of this research, occasionally touching base with family across the country to see if they had uncovered any new leads of interest.  We also discussed the DNA aspect, as it was becoming trendy, but that seemed to be nothing more than the latest rabbit hole for genealogists.

For some years, I remained out of the loop, but in 2013 decided to renew my own research on the family.  My first objective was to not simply rely on everyone else’s records, or rather, their assumptions about certain information.  This is something I see all too often in the genealogical world.  Instead, I wanted to find the actual documentation of a certain fact, or at least be able to back-track a source to its origin.  The best example I can offer in this scenario is the name itself of our subject, Lewis B. Taylor.  For years, I had been told that his full name was Lewis Ball Taylor.  However, when it comes to the records for him, no court record, legal document, or other period account supports this.  Instead, what we find is Lewis B. Taylor or Lewis Taylor or L.B. Taylor.  So where did the Ball name come from?  From what I can now tell, it came from an assumption within the family that the “B.” in Lewis B. was Ball, because of the fact that he had a grand-daughter whose name was Minerva Ball Taylor and a great-grandson named Benjamin Ball Taylor.  Down the road, while we certainly may learn that Ball is his middle name, without more at this time, it is only conjecture.

But I digress from the main topic of this story.

In addition to starting from scratch on the research aspect of Lewis B. Taylor’s history, I finally convinced myself that it was time to do more with the DNA angle.  At that time, there had been one Lewis B. Taylor family descendant to contribute to the Taylor Family Project at Family Tree DNA.   To give those of you a little background on this project, I will quote from their website directly:

The Taylor Family Genes Project (TFG) — with more than 700 members — is the largest and best Taylor Surname DNA project offered by any DNA testing company. For a common, multi-origin surname like Taylor, database size matters; it increases your chances of finding a match within the project. Having begun in late 2003, we have members with various DNA tests and are growing daily. Among our >550 members with more than 12 markers of Y-DNA results, we have identified ~80  genetic Taylor families and more than 300 unique haplotypes (individual family lines).”

When it comes to DNA research like this, size matters, and this project is THE project if you want to be serious about your Taylor family origins.

Unfortunately though, even with this kind of resource at our disposal, our one Taylor DNA submittal had turned up no matches to any other Taylors.  Despite this, I decided that it would not hurt for me to submit as well, so at the very least we would know that our “control” subject for descendants of Lewis B. Taylor was accurate.  We also decided to upgrade the test for our early DNA submission.  Originally, he had only been tested at the Y-25 level, which while cutting edge at the time, was a less than helpful tool a decade later.

So what did we find out?  Well, not surprisingly, our original submission and I came back as the highest matches for each other.  For easier reference, I will refer to him as Taylor Test One.

To give you an idea of how this works, of Taylor Test One’s 111 Y markers tested, I tested as an exact match for 108 of them.  This is highly significant, as in scientific terms it carries a 78% chance of a common ancestor within the last 8 generations and 91% within the last 10 generations.  This testing also confirmed some of our “paper” genealogy, as we came from two different branches of the Lewis B. Taylor line, specifically: Taylor Test One was a descendant of William Ney Murat Taylor (1816-1896) and I am a descendant of John W. Taylor (1797 – ca. 1870s).

I will also note for you DNA nerds out there that we are labeled as Group 81 in the Taylor Family Genes Project, with the R1b group designation, and the R1b1a2 sub-clade.  Advanced Y-DNA testing also has the ability to dig beyond the R1b1a2 designation into further sub-classes, and specific SNP mutations that we share with smaller groups of people.  Think of it as a family tree descendancy chart.  Now I can go into a lot more detail here about the various sub-clades (and their designations) that we match up to (there are thousands), but at the end of the day, our classification comes down to a group designated as Z-253 and below that, FGC3222.  [Now, end of the scientific/DNA details.]

Unfortunately, while our DNA testing (at this point) has turned up no other direct Taylor family matches, it has allowed us to start eliminating some other Taylor families who resided in and around Brunswick County in the 18-19th Century.  This is a biggie for genealogical research, as it allows us to exclude some of those rabbit holes we had been chasing for decades.   So here is who we are NOT related to or descended from:

  • The Edward Taylor (1722-1784) and Jesse Taylor (1752-1800) Families of Brunswick County… In a prominent and often cited discussion on Genealogy.com, Taylor family historian Ed Dittmer theorized that Lewis Ball Taylor could be a son of Jesse Taylor. This was a great lead, based on the dates, location, and the fact that LBT had a son named Jesse.  However, DNA data proved this to be incorrect, as confirmed “paper” genealogy and later DNA showed that descendants of Jesse Taylor (specifically, Jesse Major Taylor (b. 1798) and George Edward Taylor (b. 1797/98)) are from the Y-DNA group I-M253.  They have been separately designated in the Taylor Family Genes Project as I1-001 Group 01, and appear to descend from Robert Taylor of Rappahannock County, Virginia, circa 1688.  See http://www.taylorfamilygenes.info/groups/grp_001.shtml for more information about this line.
  • The Thomas Taylor (1750/60–1820) and Benjamin Taylor (1780-1853) Families of Lunenburg, Brunswick, and Mecklenburg Counties and Elsewhere… Again, another prominent family that we originally believed that LBT may have had a connection to due to ages and similar family names.  Upon the submission of a Y-DNA sample from a descendant of this line, however, it was determined that this line has a Y-DNA of I-M270, and appear to descend from the Rev. Daniel Taylor, Sr. (ca. 1664-1729) of New Kent and King William Counties, Virginia.
  • The James Taylor, Jr. (1770-1827) of Mecklenburg Family. This was another potential “hope” of ours, as this family spread across Brunswick and Mecklenburg Counties, as well as into Halifax County, NC, in the late 18th  Again, we met a roadblock, as the DNA submission from a descendant of this line determined that this family has a Y-DNA of R1b-M269, with the Western Atlantic Modal Haplotype, and have as their most distant paternal ancestor, John Taylor (1627-1702) of Northumberland County, Virginia.  This line has been separately designated in the Taylor Family Genes Project as R1b-091 Group 91.
  • The James Taylor (1642-1698) Family (which includes the Rev. Lewis B. Taylor of Granville County, North Carolina). This is probably the most notable of Taylor families, and the one that many Taylors claim and wish to be descended from, as this includes the lines of such notables as Presidents James Madison and Zachary Taylor, among many others.  However, the reality is that very few are connected to this line, and ours is one of them that certainly is not.  This line is designated as group R1b-002 Group 2 in the Taylor Family Genes Project, and more information about this line can be found at:  http://www.taylorfamilygenes.info/groups/grp_002.shtml

[Note:  *Currently, we are testing two possible Taylor candidates through DNA submission (and with Brunswick & Mecklenburg County ancestry), with the hope that we may find a match to our Lewis B. Taylor family line.*]

Now, where does that leave us?

Much like those dedicated researchers before us, I and many other continue on our quest to discover new information about Lewis B. Taylor.  This has come with some reward.  For one, we have been able to locate the lands owned by Lewis B. Taylor that were situated in the White Plains area of Brunswick County, and discovered that his home place still exists.  While we do not know for sure, it is very likely that he is buried on this property.

Similarly, focused research on those period documents that relate to Lewis B. Taylor help to tell us more about the man himself, and his family.  For instance, an inventory of his Estate after his death, and recorded at the Clerk’s Office of the Brunswick County Circuit Court on December 31, 1831, relate that his personal property included such items as English furniture, numerous books, pictures, and a looking glass.  Based on other Court records, we also know that Lewis B. Taylor could read and write, had vast vocational skills that included carpentry and farming, and that he was very active in his community.  Unfortunately, those bits of information do not answer for us where and when he was born, his family, or even details about his upbringing.  Our earliest record of him comes to us from Brunswick County in 1793, so we can presume he was “of age” at that time, but we know little else.

For now, I have kept a log of “field notes” about Lewis B. Taylor, of which I share with you today in the file Lewis B. Taylor Notes – Jan 10 2016.

With this story, I hope to not only draw more interest from those already researching the Taylor family (and specifically Lewis B. Taylor), but cross my fingers that this information and that which remains to be discovered will lead us to eventually unraveling the mystery of Lewis B. Taylor of Brunswick County.

Have questions?  Want to aid in the search?  Please contact me! fred.taylor.va@gmail.com

 

Update on the Roanoke Minute Men Project and a Happy New Year!

First, I would like to wish you all a blessed and prosperous new year as we go into 2016!

Now, for an update that many have been asking for …

When I began the Roanoke Minute Men Project in the spring of 2015, I underestimated the response it would create.  For years, I had “tinkered” with writing a history of Company A or the 14th North Carolina Troops, but had never felt like I could add to the histories already out there in the public (such as, The Anson Guard).   But slowly that changed, as I collected more and more accounts that had previously gone unpublished, or those that took up a mere footnote in some other history text.  That gave me the courage to start my journey, and so I began simply with my rough file of notes, a list of soldiers names, and this website to chart my course publicly.

Since that time, I have managed (part-time) to put together a detailed roster of the Company, to include individual service records, which encompasses on its own eighty-five plus pages of text.  This does not include the background and family history data that I ultimately intend to add.

Additionally, I have now collected and transcribed over a dozen period letters and accounts, ranging from the early days of the Company’s formation through 1864 (still looking for an 1865 letter!)   While a dozen letters may not seem like a lot, I started my journey with only three letters, a diary, and several post-War accounts.  Today, I wrap up the year having gone through and transcribed all of those, and have on hand as I type this FIFTEEN (yes, 15!) more letters sitting on my desk to transcribe.   To say I am excited about the stories these letters tell is an understatement, and this progress has helped to encourage my efforts into the new year.

I have also been blessed to correspond with and meet numerous Roanoke Minute Men descendants and family historians who have shared their own research with me, and have had the opportunity to do research at some of the South’s foremost academic institutions and historical archives.  I can not say enough good things about the staffs at the Rubenstein Library at Duke UniversityWilson Library at UNCState Archives of North Carolina, North Carolina Museum of History, Virginia Historical Society, and countless smaller libraries, local historical societies and courthouses that I have had the pleasure to work with over the past year.

From here, I still have a long way to go before I reach the finished product, but in the meantime please do not forget I am always looking for more letters, diaries, family histories, and images of the soldiers themselves to add to this history and honor the story of those brave veterans of the Roanoke Minute Men.

As always, I thank you all for the assistance, input, and kind words you have provided along the way, and I look forward to “charging on” into the new year!

Regards,

Fred

roanokeminutemen at gmail dot com

 

Thanksgiving, A Southern Tradition Since 1619

by Fred D. Taylor, originally published November 2005 in the Suffolk News-Herald; updated November 2015.

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As Thanksgiving is just days away, I decided to change the pace away from simply discussing someone of local significance or an historic battle, and talk a little about the history of the first English Thanksgiving in America.

While most school children in the last few weeks have been performing plays celebrating that spectacular gathering between the Pilgrims and the Indians, the truth of the matter is they got it all wrong.  Gasp!  Yes, I’m here popping the bubble of all the little kids who dressed up in their pilgrim hats and buckled shoes, or Indian headdresses, to tell the story the history books didn’t want them to know…

Despite popular American nostalgia that the first Thanksgiving was held by the Pilgrims after the arrival of the Mayflower at Plymouth Rock, it actually had its beginnings just a few miles from us along the James River at present-day Berkeley (pronounced Bark-lee) Plantation in Charles City County.

The year was 1619, twelve years after the establishment of Jamestown, when a group of thirty-eight settlers aboard the ship Margaret arrived after having made a ten-week journey across the Atlantic.  Upon their landing, they knelt and prayed on the rich Tidewater soil, with their Captain John Woodlief proclaiming:

“Wee ordaine that the day of our ships arrivall at the place assigned for plantacion in the land of Virginia shall be yearly and perpetually keept holy as a day of thanksgiving to Almighty God.”

berkeley-plantation

As historically recorded, this event was the first English Thanksgiving in the New World.  So why the big deal about the Pilgrims and the first Thanksgiving being at Plymouth Rock?  Good question.  Some historians follow the trail to northern-written textbooks (after the War Between the States, of course), but even then anything more than a cursory study of colonial history will lead one to the discrepancy between the dates of the first Thanksgiving.   Yet, we continue today to recognize the Plymouth Thanksgiving as the first, despite the clear evidence to the contrary.  In fact, the irony of all ironies is that not only did Virginia’s Thanksgiving celebration occur before the one in Massachusetts, the Pilgrims had not even landed in America yet!  The Pilgrims arrival would come one year and seventeen days later in 1620, and their Thanksgiving celebration nearly two years later in 1621.

Celebrations of “thanksgiving” would become a deeply rooted American tradition though, usually brought on by periods of great hardship.  During the American Revolution, the Continental Congress proclaimed days of Thanksgiving every year from 1778 to 1784.  Likewise, George Washington issued the first Presidential proclamation of Thanksgiving in 1789, and a few of his successors followed suit.  Interestingly, Thanksgiving was not a specific day or even month, and apparently was issued on the whim of whoever was in office.  Sporadically between the years 1789 and 1815, days of Thanksgiving were recognized in January, March, April, October, and November.  This recognition of Thanksgiving ended in 1815 following the term of President James Madison, and a President would not issue such a proclamation for another forty-six years.

That President was Jefferson F. Davis, who recognized a day of thanks, humiliation, and prayer for the young Confederate States of America for October 31st, 1861.  Not to be outdone, President Abraham Lincoln resurrected the forgotten day in the United States as well, and issued a similar proclamation in April of 1862.  In 1863, Thanksgiving was made a national holiday, and in 1866, the tradition of recognizing Thanksgiving on the fourth Thursday of November was started by President Andrew Johnson.

From that time on, every sitting President has recognized Thanksgiving as a national holiday.  Nonetheless, the twists in the story continue.  While the recognition of the holiday has been uninterrupted since 1861, the explanations of the origins of Thanksgiving have been numerous.  For years, the residents of the Oval Office ignored Virginia’s claim to the first Thanksgiving, but that all changed in 1963.  It took a Massachusetts Yankee by the name of John F. Kennedy to take the risk of alienating his constituency back home to tell the rest of the story.  President Kennedy honored Massachusetts’s and Virginia’s claim in his proclamations of 1963 at the urgency of his Special Assistant Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., a noted historian and political scientist.  After Kennedy’s death, President Johnson mentioned Virginia twice, President Jimmy Carter recognized it in 1979, and the last to recognize Virginia’s claim was President Ronald Reagan in 1985.

Today, the struggle to tell the true story of Thanksgiving continues in classrooms across America, and even more so here at home in Virginia where it all started.  For several years now, a group of concerned citizens have organized an annual event to celebrate the First Thanksgiving at Berkeley, and each year they recreate that historic event on the shores of the James River.

In the wake of America’s 400th Anniversary in 2007, the necessity to tell the real Thanksgiving story is all the more important.  So as you prepare for Thanksgiving this year, take a few minutes to reflect on this story, and to pass this tidbit of history along to others.  Every little bit helps in getting the truth out.  As for me this year, I’ve certainly got plenty to be thankful for, but in honour of those courageous thirty-eight who arrived on the shores of Virginia in 1619, I’ll be substituting my turkey and stuffing for Smithfield Ham and Chesapeake Bay Oysters.

My Latest Project

PRESS RELEASE

DATE:  March 15, 2015

Re:     Research for new book on veterans from Littleton, North Carolina

In December of 1860, a militia company known as the Roanoke Minute Men formed in Littleton, made up primarily of citizens from Halifax and Warren Counties.  This Company enlisted into state service for North Carolina, and later into the Confederate cause, as Company A, 14th Regiment North Carolina State Troops (formerly the 4th North Carolina Volunteers.)  Throughout four years of bloody conflict, this Company saw action from the early days of the War on the Virginia peninsula all the way to the last shots fired at Appomattox.

While recognized as one of the Tar Heel state’s greatest fighting units, no formal unit history has ever been compiled of the men who served in the Roanoke Minute Men – until now – and this work focuses on rare and previously unpublished letters, diaries, family histories, and service records to tell the story of these brave veterans and their families.

Although substantial progress on the history of the Roanoke Minute Men has already been made, historian Fred D. Taylor hopes to engage public support for his efforts and seeks submission of individual family histories, images of veterans both in uniform and as civilians, war-time accounts, and/or  letters of the men who served in this unit.

Family surnames included in the research of this Company are:  Adams, Ales, Allen, Allsbrook, Aycock, Barkley, Bobbitt, Bolton, Boon, Boswell, Brown, Burge, Burrows, Camp, Carlena, Carroll, Cherry, Clements, Day, Deaton, Eaton, Edmonds, Edwards, Felts or Feltz, Floore, Floyd, Forrest, Goodson, Hardister, Hardy, Harper, Harris, Herbert, Hicks, Holt, House, Hurley, Ingram, Jarrald, Jenkins, Johnston, Kearney, King, Lancaster, Latham, Lewis, Lynch, McCarson, McCaskill, Marlow, Mathews, Moore, Morris(s), Munn, Myrick, Nevill, Newsom, Parsons, Pendergrass, Peterson, Pittard, Pryor, Pugh, Riggan, Roberts, Rodgers, Rooker, Scarlett, Shearin, Tucker, Turner, Vick, Walker, Webb, Williams, Wilson, Wright, Yarbrough, and Yeourns.

For more information about the Roanoke Minute Men project, or to make submissions to this effort, please contact Fred D. Taylor at roanokeminutemen@gmail.com, telephone at 757-705-0950, or by mail to:  160 West Washington Street, Suffolk, Virginia 23434.  All submissions will be properly credited to the owner.

Fred D. Taylor, whose family hails from the Littleton, North Carolina, area, is a native of Virginia, holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in history from Old Dominion University, a Juris Doctorate from the Mercer University School of Law, and is an attorney by profession in Suffolk, Virginia.

HistoryMobile Rolling into Historic Downtown Suffolk

Press Release from the City of Suffolk Division of Tourism

VIRGINIA’S CIVIL WAR 150 HISTORY MOBILE
ROLLING INTO HISTORIC DOWNTOWN SUFFOLK

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SUFFOLK, VA (March 3, 2015) History is on the move in Virginia as the Civil War 150 HistoryMobile rolls into Suffolk for a two day visit on Friday, March 13th, and Saturday, March 14th, from 10:00 a.m. until 5:00 p.m. both days. The exhibit, an initiative of the Virginia Sesquicentennial of the American Civil War Commission, will be located at the Suffolk Visitor Center, 524 North Main Street. Admission to the HistoryMobile is free and open to the public. These “history days” are presented by the Suffolk Division of Tourism partnering with the Suffolk Public Library, Riddick’s Folly House Museum and the Hilton Garden Inn Suffolk Riverfront.

In addition to the HistoryMobile exhibit, the event also includes tours and a living history reenactment at Riddick’s Folly House Museum; guided tours of historic Downtown Suffolk and the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge; and a genealogy workshop and a history presentation. Stop by the Historic Seaboard Station Railroad Museum to browse the large selection of Historical Society publications and learn about the importance and history of railroads in Suffolk while viewing the HO scale railroad model of 1907 Suffolk.

The HistoryMobile uses immersive spaces and interactive exhibits to draw together stories of the Civil War and emancipation from the viewpoints of those who experienced it across Virginia—young and old, enslaved and free, soldier and civilian. Visitors will encounter history in ways they may have never experienced before. The HistoryMobile exhibit is divided into four sections: Battlefront, Homefront, Journey to Freedom, and Loss-Gain-Legacy. From the bewildering sense of chaos experienced by soldiers, to the last letter written by a dying son to his father after sustaining a mortal wound, to a hushed conversation between a husband and wife considering the great risks and rewards of fleeing to freedom, the HistoryMobile presents the stories of real people in Virginia whose lives were shaped by the historic events of the 1860s, and invites visitors to imagine, “What Would You Do?”

The Civil War 150 HistoryMobile crosses the state visiting museums, schools, and special events. Its tour began in July 2011, and since then it has made over 120 stops and attracted visitors from every state and a number of other countries.
In addition to learning more about Virginia’s history, the HistoryMobile also provides visitors with information from Virginia Tourism about the many historic sites and destinations that they can explore today.

Admission to the Virginia Civil War 150 HistoryMobile is free and open to the public. For additional information on event happenings in conjunction with the HistoryMobile visit such as tour reservations, associated costs and times contact the Suffolk Visitor Center at 757-514-4130 or visitsuffolk@suffolkva.us. Space is limited on tours. Advance reservations are required.

Friday, March 13, 2015 Activities

10am-5pm HistoryMobile open to schools and public

10am-4pm Riddick’s Folly House Museum open for hourly tours ($5 per person)

10am Washington Ditch Boardwalk Guided Walk ($5 per person; reservations required)

11am-4pm Suffolk Seaboard Station Railroad Museum open to public for tours (donation)

12pm Great Dismal Swamp’s Underground Railroad Network to Freedom Pavilion Tour ($5 per person; reservations required)

3pm Historic Downtown Narrated Bus Tour ($5 per person, reservations required)

6pm Legends of Main Street: A Suffolk Ghost Walk ($10 per person; reservations required)

Saturday, March 14, 2015 Activities

10am-5pm HistoryMobile open to public

10am-4pm Riddick’s Folly House Museum open for hourly tours ($5 per person)

10am-4pm Period reenactments on the grounds of Riddick’s Folly (free)

10am-1pm Genealogy Workshop with the “Daughters of the American Revolution” at Morgan Memorial Library

10am Washington Ditch Boardwalk Guided Walk ($5 per person; reservations required)

10am-3pm Suffolk Seaboard Station Railroad Museum open to public for tours (donation)

12pm Great Dismal Swamp’s Underground Railroad Network to Freedom Pavilion Tour ($5 per person; reservations required)

2pm-3pm “The Battle of Suffolk: Through Soldier’s Letters,” a presentation by Kermit Hobbs at Morgan Memorial Library

3pm Historic Downtown Narrated Bus Tour ($5 per person, reservations required)

6pm Legends of Main Street: A Suffolk Ghost Walk ($10 per person; reservations required)

Andrew Jackson Moseley, 1834-1908

From the memorial speech given by D.W. Taylor at the Confederate gravestone dedication for Andrew Jackson Moseley at Jerusalem United Methodist Church, Wise, Warren County, North Carolina.  

The man whom we are gathered here to commemorate was born on August 11th, 1834 in Brunswick County, Virginia, the second son of Hardaway Moseley (of Brunswick County, Virginia) and Harriet Richardson (of Warren County, North Carolina).  He was named after the military hero and then presiding 7th President of the United States, Andrew Jackson.  Little is known of Andrew Jackson Moseley’s childhood, except that he was raised on a farm that his father ran concurrently with a blacksmith shop.  This proved later to serve as the training ground and course of profession that Andrew was to follow for the remainder of his life.  In 1850, the Moseley family was living just across the Roanoke River in the Gasburg area of Brunswick County, Virginia.  Here, he met and married Margaret Caroline Barner, from the nearby community of Ebony, Virginia on April 2nd, 1856.  Shortly thereafter, Andrew’s father died.  Will records show that Andrew purchased from the estate blacksmith materials and livestock of his father’s shop and farm.  Andrew and Caroline’s first child, Sarah Jane, was born on July 20, 1857.

Tax records of 1859 and 1860 show prosperous growth in assets, indicating the beginning of a successful career.  The 1859 records showed that Andrew had 14 livestock valued at $10, 1 clock valued at $5, a $75 horse (rather valuable for the time), and miscellaneous household items worth $50, for which he paid a county tax of $1.36.  The next year, he had obviously re-accessed his career course, directing his efforts toward blacksmithing, as he had sold all of his livestock and invested a considerable amount of his gain into the purchase of a servant to assist in his business.  That year’s tax records shows that he had, in addition to the servant, a horse (or mule) valued at a much lower $20, no livestock, and the same household items as the year before, but at a tax value of $2.34 (almost double that of the previous year).  This however, may not have been a completely wise decision, as the next few years would not only change his financial situation, but would change his homeland and way of life forever.

By April of 1860, a second child, my great-grandmother (Elizabeth Barner Moseley) was born.  Little could Andrew have known at the time that just 364 days later the political upheaval at national and state levels would reach a crest and the most devastating war in our history would break out.  Also, he could not have known that the two states in which he was to call home would be shattered with greater losses in blood and property than any states before or since that time.

Now with five mouths to feed, and another child on the way, Andrew saw his brother-in-law and many of his friends and neighbors marching off to war.  Undoubtedly like many others of the time, he was torn between his patriotic duties and his immediate family responsibilities.  Nevertheless, he had a skill that was in high demand in the South, as virtually every item of war and survival of an economy must now be made at home.  Thus, Andrew continued on with his blacksmith business for another year.

But the tide of war was nothing like the slight scuffle expected in the beginning, and the troops signed up for a year were beginning to realize that the Federal Government of the United States was a formidable adversary.  Military needs now outweighed economic needs and Andrew was faced with decision to leave his home and family and join the call of his State and Country.  By the time Andrew J. Moseley had joined the Confederate Army, his regiment was a veteran organization of 16 months service, having been originated as a militia company in December 1860 around a nucleus of well-to-do Richmond men.  That company grew rapidly as the threat of war loomed greater.   Twice it was called into action due to suspected threats of attack, and it was twice shelled by Federal gunboats, prior to being formed with other companies and mustered into official service as the 21st Virginia Infantry, in June of 1861.  The remaining companies being comprised of men from Brunswick, Charlotte, Mecklenburg, Cumberland, Buckingham, Pittsylvania, Prince Edward, and Nottoway Counties in Virginia, and the City of Baltimore, Maryland.

The initial officers led by Colonel (later General) William Gilham consisted in part of Lt. Col. John M. Patton, Jr. (Great Uncle of WWII General George S. Patton, III) and the later famous publisher, as Sgt. Major, Virginius Dabney.

Like in most military units, both North and South, hard marching, unsanitary conditions, disease of epidemic proportion and insufficient commissary services immediately began to take a toll on the men.  Just as the men began to toughen and to think that they had survived the worse, they were assigned in November to General Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson’s Brigade.  It was with this brigade, made famous by Jackson’s rapid marches up and down the Shenandoah Valley, surprising and confusing the enemy, that they became known as “Jackson’s Foot Cavalry”.  Their hard marching changed to hard fighting on Sunday, March 23, 1862, where Jackson’s men met Gen. Nathan Bank’s superior force of Federal troops at Kernstown, Virginia, just 2 miles from Winchester.  Here, the 21st Virginia lost 60 men, 22% of the regiment, with one officer killed and four officers wounded, including one of Andrew’s in-laws, Thomas J. Barner, who was wounded in this battle.  Many officers were spared in this conflict as they were at the moment absent on recruiting service.

One such officer was Captain A. D. Kelly, who just three days later, on March 26, signed up Andrew Jackson Moseley, his brother John D. Moseley and a number of their friends into service at Rock Store in Gholsonville, Brunswick County, Virginia.  Given less than one week to set their personal affairs in order and bid their families good-by, the new recruits marched off to meet their new comrades on April 4th.  Andrew’s third child, Bob Moseley, was now just 5 months old.

Andrew and John had just joined their command (as volunteers) when the army was reorganized on April 21st, setting up for the duration of a long drawn out war.  (Incidentally, brother John was back in Brunswick County on April 20th to marry Caroline’s sister and the namesake of Andrews first child, Mary Jane Barner).

Their first trial by fire came on May 8th when they were involved in the Battle of McDowell on Bull Pasture Mountain.  Fortunately, here and later in the Battle of Winchester, the unit suffered little harm, although in the Battle of Winchester they were under heavy artillery and musket fire for over 90 minutes.

Their next duty had them marching prisoners of war up the valley (southward) and then traveling by rail to Lynchburg.  Returning to regular duty, the 21st marched northward along the eastern ridge of the mountains to Charlottesville, where they reattached to their command.

They then looped northeastward to unite with Generals Longstreet and A. P. Hill in support of General Lee’s counter-offensive style defense of Yankee Gen. George McClellan’s Peninsular Campaign in his attempt to take Richmond.  Jackson’s men, now, too well equipped with guns, equipment, and clothing captured at Winchester, for once failed their well-earned reputation as “foot cavalry”, arriving late for each in the series of battles known of as the Seven Days Battles.  Nevertheless, they provided the needed backup support to assure victory for the South, and because of their strenuous trek, Jackson’s men were marched back to Richmond and granted one whole day’s leave.

With a few short rests during the remainder of June and July, Jackson entered headlong into a major battle on August 9th, driving between portions of the Union Army of the Potomac at Cedar Mountain.  After two hours of hard fighting, the 21st Virginia found themselves virtually surrounded by the enemy after the 1st Virginia Battalion on their left flank was routed.  One officer of the 21st reported that “The enemy got in our rear (with)in thirty steps of us before we found it out.”  Regardless, according to Gen. Wm. B. Taliaferro’s official report, “The 21st Virginia Regiment, ….poured a destructive fire upon the enemy and exhibited a degree of heroic gallantry rarely ever witnessed.”  With rifles empty and no time to reload, one of the rare moments of actual hand-to-hand combat followed, with the bayonet freely being used.  This may have been the 21st’s finest hour, but also, the most tragic, with a 50% casualty rate including the loss of their Lt. Col., Richard Cunningham.  Needless to say, the unit fell apart under the tremendous pressure and many men were captured, some of them reportedly being killed after their surrender.

For Andrew Moseley and his surviving comrades, this was a prelude for things to come.  On the 30th of August, in what was to become known as Second Manassas, the 21st Virginia was being held in reserve due to the lack of ammunition.  About 4:00 pm, the Federals stormed their position and the regiment was ordered to charge with empty guns.  Using a railroad cut as natural fortifications, and with only bayonets, rocks and rifles as clubs, they drove back the charge. Two days later, the 21st fought in the nearby Battle of Chantilly in a thunderstorm with torrential rain.  With this the 21st VA headed toward Maryland and the Battle of Sharpsburg.  Andrew, however, headed toward Richmond, Va., and hospitals there disabled from a gunshot wound.  It is not known which of the battles he was wounded in, as the first record shows him in Richmond on September 4th, where he stayed until furloughed home to Brunswick Co., on November 4th through December 29th, 1862.  Incidentally, Jones Clary, the man who was later to be Andrew’s second father-in-law was killed sometime during these same battles.

Despite hand to hand combat and a gunshot wound, the most trying time of his life came during this furlough, as his first child, Sara Jane died on December 14th, just before Christmas.  Returning to Richmond as required, records show Andrew debilitated and hospitalized until March of 1863, when he was declared unfit for further military service.  Though remaining on the 21st VA rolls, on March 23rd, Andrew was detailed by special orders from the Adj. & Inspector General’s Office, CSA to work in Tredegar Iron Works for the remainder of the war.  Again applying his trade as blacksmith, Andrew assisted in the manufacture of Cannon and other equipment for the Confederacy.

Whether by nature of injury or due to special skill it is not known, but about this time, Andrew’s brother, John, was detailed to work in a government shoe factory in Richmond.  Whether they were able to take their families to Richmond, it is, also, not known, but due to the severe shortage in living quarters, shortage of food, and high inflation, it is suspected that the families would have been better off in their home county.  If so, they probably would have been able to visit one another occasionally.  Anyway, Andrew and Caroline’s 3rd child, Allen, was born in November of 1863.

In Richmond, both Andrew and John were assigned to Company C, 6th Battalion of Local Defense, (later consolidated with the 2nd Battalion, forming the 2nd Regiment Infantry, Local Defense) which was made up of detached military and civil servants for the protection of the Capital City.  This force drilled regularly, and served local military needs as arose, but were fortunate in only being called into a couple of minor alarms on the outskirts of the city.  Their last assignment, however, was that of evacuating Richmond on that fateful day of April 3rd, 1865 when General Lee began his retreat to Appomattox.

Brother John apparently became permanently ill (possibly due to previous wounds) while in Richmond, as records indicate he requested retirement less than a month before Richmond fell.  Unfortunately, neither the request nor its reply survived the burning and subsequent evacuation of Richmond.  However, such a request would have been deemed serious, considering his age, marital status and the tide of war in which he was assigned to service.  Both Andrew and John returned to Brunswick County after the war, but John apparently never recovered from his illness or wound as he passed away on October 27th, 1866.

Andrew and Caroline returned to civilian life during the fateful period of Reconstruction.  During this time, however, they were blessed with two more children, Willie Cleveland, and James Turner.  Unfortunately, to close out this fateful chapter in history, Caroline Barner Moseley passed away in January of 1870, and her Sister Mary Jane Barner Moseley died (of consumption) a short time later in 1871, each leaving small children.

Regrouping his life, in October of 1873, Andrew took a new bride, Susan Clary (daughter of aforementioned Jones Clary) and moved to Warren Co., NC.  There, he assumed the position of overseer on the John Boyd, Jr. Plantation, located on the Eaton’s Ferry/Vaughan road.  Here Andrew supervised the farming operation, a general store, a cotton gin and ran a blacksmith shop, while Susan took care of their already large family.  In their spare time, Andrew and Susan increased their family size by seven more children.  First to arrive of the new union, was Nick (born in 1874), then Foote (born in 1876), Wilson (born in 1878, but whom presumably died at a young age).  Joe was born in 1881, but some relief came to the number of mouths to feed that year.  Sometime around 1880, a young widower from Brunswick County, by the name of Benjamin Ball Taylor, came to work as a farm hand, for Andrew.   Needless to say, he fell in love with the farmer’s daughter and they ran off and were married in 1881.  Andrew and Susan continued their family, possibly they felt it would be more cost effective to raise their on farm help.  Anyway the next to be born was Mary J. in 1885, followed by John Edward in 1891 and finally Thomas J. in 1893.

Sometime after this point disaster struck again, as Susan passed away, possibly during childbirth. We know little of Andrew’s situation with this large family at this point, except that the older children were reaching adulthood and setting out on their own.  Bob was married in 1894 and, both Allen and James began careers in the Navy. Clearly, he still had ties with Brunswick Co., as some of his children married and settled in that area.  It is not known where Susan and Wilson are buried, but it is possible that they were buried on the Boyd plantation, as there was an old cemetery near the Boyd house.  However, none of those graves had markers other than regular field stones.

Further, at this point John Boyd, Jr. had apparently been unsuccessful in maintaining his wealth, as he reportedly fancied (too well) the aristocrat life of the antebellum south.  The vast holdings began to crumble around him and by 1900, the property was purchased by Archer Wilson and Wiley Coleman.  Also, sometime before1900, Andrew had again gathered up his children and started afresh; this time in the community of Paschal, NC, where he again opened a blacksmith shop just a short distance from where we are now standing.  Not to be a widower long, he once again married, this time to a young widow herself, Annie Perkinson Williams, with two young children, Rosa Ann and John Robert Williams.  Together, they had two more children, Macon Gibbons in 1904 and Herbert Glen in 1906.

On February 21st , 1908, at the age of 76, Andrew Jackson Moseley passed away, or to paraphrase the words of his fearless leader and General, Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson, he “passed over the river to rest on the other side”. 

Andrew Jackson Moseley was a faithful husband, suffering through the deaths of two mates before leaving his last mate in death.  He was a proud father to fifteen children of his own and two step-children.  And, he was a tireless provider, serving his family and serving his country, working until his death in the profession taught by his father.

War and Reconstruction, Part 3 of 3

Originally published in the Suffolk News-Herald, August 2005

In my previous column, Charles Henry Causey had seen capture and parole, an assignment with the Confederate States Secret Service, and ultimately, an appointment to the command of Major General George Pickett.  In this last and final column, I will relate Causey’s final days of the war, and how a young man born in Delaware ended up making Suffolk his home.

By 1864, Charles Henry Causey had clearly found his niche and spent the remainder of the war as a scout and member of the famed Confederate Secret Service, working both in Pickett’s command and also through the War Department.  Not surprisingly, his entire record remains a bit of an enigma due such secret and dangerous operations.  Though a scant number of military service records, official reports, and letters do exist, for the most part Causey’s activities from 1861 to 1865 remain obscure.  When the National Archives compiled these records, they too noticed the irregularity of his “official” assignments.  In a statement filed by one of the records compilers, it was noted that there was “a slight endeavor on the part of Confederate authorities to make it appear that this man was on Signal Duty.”  However, there was “no indication that he knew anything of a signal code, or of any action except as a scout or spy.”  It was also pointed out that his support by General Pickett in 1863 was clearly emphatic as to the importance of his services, but “makes no mention of what they are.”

The one thing that is known is that Charles Henry Causey’s role in the Tidewater area certainly had a lasting effect on his life.  Apparently, during his time scouting in the Suffolk region he had the opportunity to meet the young Martha Josephine Prentis, daughter of Peter Bowdoin and Eliza Wrenn Prentis.  Martha was eighteen when Causey met her in 1863, and their relationship blossomed from those occasions when he could avoid the roaming Union cavalry parties that passed through Suffolk in 1864.  Despite the infrequency of their meetings in the midst of a raging war, they decided to take their courtship to the next level by the fall of that year.  On September 26, 1864, Charles Henry Causey and Martha Josephine Prentis were married in Suffolk.  But their time together was anything but a honeymoon, and was abruptly curtailed due to the dismal outlook of the Confederate army.  By the winter of 1864, Union General Grant had placed a stranglehold on Lee’s army, and the Signal Corps’ operations were limited to Pickett’s thin defenses on the south side of Petersburg.  Causey did manage to slip in and out of enemy lines and continue his reconnaissance work in the Tidewater region, but for the most part his previous services were no longer needed with the Confederate capital under siege.  In April of 1865, when Petersburg and Richmond were evacuated, Causey was presumably in the Tidewater area and was not with the army during Lee’s retreat or subsequent surrender at Appomattox.  Instead, he turned himself in to Federal authorities two weeks later on April 25, and was given a parole under the terms agreed upon by Lee and Grant.

Upon his parole, Charles Henry Causey returned for his bride in Suffolk, and started a family.  Their first child, William Bowdoin Causey, was born on June 11, 1865, and named for Charles Henry’s brother and Martha’s father.  Their second child was a daughter, Marianna Causey, born in 1866, and the Causey family continued to grow with the birth of Charles Henry Causey, Jr., born in 1868; Peter Prentis Causey, born in 1872; James Campbell Causey, born in 1874; Margaret Webb Causey, born in 1876; and Josephine Causey, born in 1878.  Records indicate two more children who died in infancy, but their names are unknown.

Besides the growth of his family, Charles Henry Causey’s law practice also took a turn for the better following the end of Reconstruction in 1870 and the removal of Federal troops from Virginia.  Among his clients included the Atlantic and Danville Railroad, as well as the Seaboard Airline Railroad, putting him in almost daily contact with his fellow Confederate comrade, General Laurence Simmons Baker who served as railroad agent in Suffolk.  This also gave Causey the opportunity to befriend former Confederate General William Mahone, a prominent railroad builder and the president of several railroad lines.  It was through Mahone that Causey became active in state politics.

In the late 1870s, Mahone became the leader of a somewhat unpopular group at the time known as the Readjuster party, which sought to lower Virginia’s prewar debt.  This group was a coalition of Democrats, Republicans, and African-Americans opposed to the Conservative Democrat platform that most ex-Confederates aligned themselves with.   In 1881 though, the Readjuster Party won control of the Governor’s Mansion with the election of William A. Cameron, and swept a number of seats in the Virginia General Assembly.  Charles Henry Causey supported these reform policies of Mahone, and became an active member of the Readjuster Party as a result.  In return for his support, Causey was named Clerk of the Virginia Senate in December of 1881, appointed to the Board of the Eastern Lunatic Asylum in 1882, and served as Commonwealth’s Attorney for Suffolk.

However, party politics would again change in the Old Dominion, and the Readjuster Party could not hold together its coalition of minority parties in order to stay in power.  Sensing the change in the political climate, Mahone made the bold move of aligning himself and the Adjuster Party with the Republican Party in 1884.  This created quite a storm in the state, as many considered then (and some still do today) the Republican Party as the “Party of Lincoln.”  As a result, a number of citizens ostracized Mahone and other ex-Confederates like Causey as scalawags, but in reality the Virginia electorate remained split fifty-fifty.

Charles Henry Causey, circa 1880s.

Locally, a number of Nansemond County and Suffolk citizens voted Republican in the 1880s.  It was through their support that Charles Henry Causey became the first Republican elected from Suffolk to the Virginia State Senate in 1884.  Charles Henry Causey served in the Senate until his term expired in 1887, and also became a Republican elector for the 2nd Congressional District.

Besides his political activities, Charles Henry Causey was also a prominent Mason and Odd Fellow, and an active member of the Pickett-Buchanan Camp of the United Confederate Veterans based in Norfolk.  At the time, the Tom Smith Camp in Suffolk had yet to be formed, and a number of Suffolk’s Confederate veterans held membership in the Norfolk camp.

In August of 1890, sickness struck Charles Henry Causey, and he was ill but for a few days when he suddenly passed away at 10:30 PM on Wednesday, August 27, at the young age of fifty-three years.  His death was announced in both the Suffolk and Norfolk newspapers, and came as a great shock to the community and all that knew him.  Prior to his passing, he had often remarked that he wished his funeral to be conducted by his comrades in the Pickett-Buchanan Camp, and per his wish, the old veterans of that group organized on the day of his funeral.  Due to his position as attorney for the Atlantic and Danville Railroad, the railroad offered a special train car from Norfolk to carry the Confederate veterans to Suffolk as they paid the last honors to their fallen comrade.

Captain Charles Henry Causey was laid to rest in Cedar Hill Cemetery on Friday, August 29, 1890.  He left a wife, and five children.  Of those, all rose to some prominence in the community, with Charles Henry Causey, Jr., and James Campbell Causey serving with the 4th Virginia Infantry from Suffolk during the Spanish-American War, William Bowdoin Causey serving as a Lieutenant Colonel of Engineers in World War I, and Peter Prentis Causey becoming a noted local doctor.  There is no doubt that a respect and reverence for military service was instilled in the hearts and minds of the Causey children, especially in Charles Henry Causey, Jr.  He rose to the rank of Captain during the Spanish-American War, and it was through his efforts that following the war Suffolk Post No. 57 of the American Legion was organized in our city.

Clearly, the accomplishments of his children were a reflection on the character and example left by Charles Henry Causey.  Yet, no greater testimony can be said of his life than the one given by the Norfolk Virginian newspaper (today’s Virginian-Pilot) at the time of his death:

“He was a prominent citizen of Suffolk, foremost in all enterprises, looking to the advancement of the section in which he lived, and his loss will be keenly felt…He was a good husband, an affectionate father and a devoted friend.”

Cedar Hill Cemetery, Suffolk, Virginia

The South’s 007, Part 2 of 3

Originally published in the Suffolk News-Herald, August 2005

At the close of the last column, Lieutenant Charles Henry Causey had received a rather favorable recommendation for promotion from Major General John Bankhead Magruder.  This letter asked of the Secretary of War that Causey be given the rank of Major, and placed in command of a battalion of cavalry that was being mustered into Confederate service in North Carolina, where he was stationed at the time.

Yet, that was not to be the fate of Causey.  Instead, he was promoted to the rank of Captain in November of 1862, and ordered once again to report to General Magruder, who was by then stationed in San Antonio, Texas.  From the records available, it appears that Causey never made it to Texas as ordered, but managed to get his assignment once again changed.  By the close of 1862, he was serving on the staff of Major General Arnold Elzey, Commander of the Department of Richmond, responsible for defending the Confederate capital.  Causey’s scouting services were once again employed in his new position, but were quickly interrupted in January of 1863.  Unfortunately, the records do not indicate how it occurred, but Causey was captured and sent to Old Capital Prison in Washington, D.C.  He spent about three months in prison, but was quickly exchanged and returned to Confederate service by April.

Upon his return, Charles Henry Causey was assigned to duty under Major William Norris, Commander of the Confederate States Signal Corps, and also a former staff officer under Magruder.  For the most part, the signal service was a team of signal “flagmen” who used flags during the day and torches by night to replicate the Morse code system of dots then used with the telegraph system.  Most importantly, this signal system found great use on the battlefield between distant units, as well as across large rivers that made the use of couriers or water-passage impossible.  However, while the Signal Corps operated out of a modest office in downtown Richmond, in reality its back room was the home of the Confederate Secret Service office, where a much greater degree of intelligence was relayed.  Here, valuable information was disseminated, usually in secret code, from operatives as far away as New York City and Europe.

Though assigned to service with the “Signal Corps,” it is more likely that Charles Henry Causey was as an agent with the more covert Secret Service.  Specifically, his assignment was for duty on the lower James River, which by that point in the war was completely under the occupation of the Union army.  His headquarters and rendezvous point was located across the James River, near Burwell’s Bay and Fort Boykin in Smithfield, a relative safe-haven given the nearby 20,000 Confederate troops involved in the Siege of Suffolk at the time.  Each night, or as often as possible, Causey would cross the James River to meet with other agents and friendly Southerners within the Federal lines.  On his first crossing on April 11 of 1863, Causey returned to Smithfield with valuable information as to Union troop movements on the Peninsula, including information as to whether reinforcements were being sent to Suffolk to block Confederate attempts to regain the city.  By April 20, less than two weeks later, Causey had successfully breeched the enemy lines as far in as Fortress Monroe, and reported back to the Confederate War Department with copies of Yankee newspapers, troop strengths on the Peninsula and Suffolk, the number of rations being issued, and reports on the number of naval vessels in the James River.

Charles Henry Causey maintained this system of nightly trips across the James River up through fall of 1863.  At that point, Causey fell out of favor with his Commander, Major Norris, and was told that his services were “no longer important.”  However, Causey’s operations during the year had put him in contact with another important branch of the Secret Service, a group known as the Independent Signal Corps.  This group, stationed exclusively in the Tidewater area was not under the command of Major Norris.  Rather, it was led by Major James F. Milligan, who had actually taught Norris the signal codes & operations, but was passed over for appointment to the regular Signal Corps.  Rather than create a rift between two powerful and important leaders in Signal Corps operations, the Confederate government allowed Milligan to maintain his Independent Signal Corps without ever having to report to Major Norris.

In his defense, Causey sought the support of Major General George Pickett, who he had worked with during the Siege of Suffolk campaign.  In an October letter from his headquarters in North Carolina, Pickett stated that since April, Causey “has, with five assistants, organized a line of communication with the enemy’s line in vicinity of Fortress Monroe, and has to the present time obtained daily intelligence, the latest New York papers, and kept open mail communication with all parts of the North.”  Ironically, the same day that Pickett issued this letter, he also appointed to his command Major James F. Milligan as his department’s chief signal officer.  Not surprisingly, all of this opened up another bitter dispute between Major Norris, Major Milligan & the role of the Independent Signal Corps, and Major General Pickett.  A week following Pickett’s letters, Norris again wrote to the Confederate high command that Causey’s services were no longer needed.  Yet, this attempt to discredit Causey by Major Norris was in vain, as General Pickett made it clear in his last and final letter on the subject, stating that Captain Causey be ordered to report to him, that he was not in the Signal Corps, and that he be ordered to report for duty, “at these Hdqrs., irrespective of the Signal Corps and Major Norris.”

This ended any questions on the subject, and on November 6, 1863, Captain Charles Henry Causey was ordered to report to the famed leader Major General George Pickett at Petersburg for assignment to duty.

In my next column, read about Captain Causey’s last two years in Confederate service, his marriage, and his new life in Suffolk following the war.

The Life of Charles Henry Causey, Part 1 of 3

Originally published in the Suffolk News-Herald, August 2005

Today when we think of intelligence operations, we are accustomed to hearing stories of James Bond and Britain’s MI-6, or our own Central Intelligence Agency.  However, both of these groups found their early development in military operations and activities that had occurred many years before.  In the United States, this developed through the Army’s signal service in the 1850s, and was quickly revolutionized during the War Between the States due to the necessity to quickly disseminate valuable information as to troop movements.  Though many were involved in the day to day operations of the intelligence departments on both sides of this conflict, one figure stands out quite prominently.  Though not a Suffolk native, the war and his activities brought him here, and eventually resulted in him making Suffolk his home.

Charles Henry Causey was born on July 14, 1837, in New Castle, Delaware.  He was the oldest of three children born to the Maryland native William Causey and his Scottish-born wife, Mary Colvin.  By the age of two, however, Charles Henry and the Causey family moved to Elizabeth City County (present day Hampton), presumably following a job opportunity offered to his father, who worked as an engineer.  In the same year, the second child of the Causey family was born, William N. Causey; and in 1841, the third and final child, James Colvin Causey.  As a young man, Charles Henry attended local schools and excelled in his studies.  It was no surprise then when in the mid-1850s he was accepted to Waynesburg College (formerly Madison College) in Uniontown, Pennsylvania, a prominent Presbyterian affiliated school.  Charles Henry graduated from Waynesburg in 1857, and returned to Virginia to seek a law degree from the University of Virginia.  He graduated from UVA in 1859, but before starting his formal law practice, began teaching at a school in Elizabeth City County.

In less than a year though, the political atmosphere of Virginia and indeed the country completely changed.  Following Lincoln’s call for troops to suppress the “rebellion” in the spring of 1861, the Commonwealth of Virginia seceded from the Union on the 17th of April by a vote of a special convention.  One month later, the citizens of the state went to the polls, and voted overwhelmingly to secede, with the constituents of Elizabeth City County voting in favor of secession, 343-6.  Despite their support for the Confederacy, however, Hampton was occupied by the Federal armies early on in the war due to its proximity to Fortress Monroe.  In fact, on June 10 the first land battle of the war in Virginia was commenced from Hampton and occurred at Big Bethel in Newport News between Confederate forces under the command of Colonel John Bankhead Magruder and Union forces under General Benjamin “Beast” Butler.  Though insignificant in numbers, this early battle was a sign of things to come for Virginia and the Peninsula.

In the meantime, military units were springing up all across the South enlisting young men to defend their homes and sweethearts.  On June 24, having been forced away from Hampton as refugees, Charles Henry and his brother James Colvin Causey heeded the call for troops, and joined the Old Dominion Dragoons, Company B of the 3rd Virginia Cavalry.  With his vast educational background, and knowledge of the Peninsula region, Charles Henry was detailed to serve as a scout for Colonel Magruder who was quickly throwing up a line of defenses in Newport News in order to protect the new Confederate Capital in Richmond from attack.

In October of 1861, Charles Henry Causey was conferred with a promotion to the rank of 2nd Lieutenant in the Confederate States Cavalry by President Jefferson F. Davis.  Amazingly though, no records as to his particular assignment or unit are available with his promotion or included in his service records.  Rather, he was issued a statement from his commander in the 3rd Virginia Cavalry announcing his promotion, and describing him as, “…5 ft. 8 in. high, dark complexion, dark eyes, dark hair, and by profession a farmer…”  The only explanation to such a promotion and descriptive letter hint to Causey’s early service as a scout.  Due to the nature of his work, affirming his position in Confederate military service was absolute necessary in the event of capture.

From February to July of 1862, military service records show Charles Henry Causey as serving on the staff of then General John B. Magruder.  Magruder’s own records reflect this, and in a May report to General Robert E. Lee, Causey was commended as an officer “of great advantage to the service” and whose “intrepidity and enterprise have been in the highest degree conspicuous on every occasion.”  With the help of Causey, and others on his staff with the knowledge of the area, General Magruder was able to hold the Union army at bay for a number of months, when in reality they were vastly outnumbered.

Following the Confederacy’s abandonment of the Peninsula, and subsequent fighting of the Seven Days Battles around Richmond, Magruder was transferred to the Department of Texas.  Causey requested from Magruder to stay behind until which time he could gain an official transfer to a command closer to home, and the possibility of a promotion, if available.  Being without a Command to report to, Causey was issued orders by the Adjutant General’s office to report to the North Carolina coast, a post he had first requested back in February of 1862 in the midst of the battle of Roanoke Island.  With these orders, he was told to report to General Daniel Harvey Hill.  More than likely, this was not his first interaction with Hill, as Hill had served for a number of months on the Peninsula during and after the Battle of Big Bethel.  While Causey remained in North Carolina throughout the fall of 1862, he did not stop lobbying for the promotion which he believed had been long overdue.  In September, Causey’s old friend Major General Magruder weighed in and sent a letter to the Secretary of War, George W. Randolph, urging for a promotion for his able Lieutenant.

Commenting on his abilities as a scout and reconnoitering officer, Magruder explained, “I was indebted to him during the Peninsula Campaign for valuable information as to the enemy’s numbers, position, movement, and designs.  On one occasion and at a critical period… he volunteered to undertake the perilous task of penetrating the enemy’s lines and succeeded in getting into their rear and reported to me the information he obtained which proved to be valuable as to their numbers, position, etc.  During this expedition which he undertook alone and on foot, he was nine days in the enemy’s lines and endured great hardships from hunger, fatigue, and exposure to cold & wet in the woods and marshes on the Peninsula.”

With such a high recommendation in hand, the future for Charles Henry Causey was destined to be interesting.  In my upcoming columns, read how Causey found his way into the Confederate States Secret Service, and ultimately to his future home in Suffolk.

The Gray Ghost of Suffolk, Part 2 of 2

Originally published in the Suffolk News-Herald, April 2006

The Great Dismal Swamp Escape 

In my last column, Richard H. Hosier had been sentenced to death by Union officials.  His punishment was overturned by the commanding Union General in Norfolk for reasons unknown, and instead his sentence was commuted to hard labor.  Robertson Arnold’s recollections of the Dismal Swamp recalled this story of Hosier’s capture with much revelry.  According to Arnold, Richard Hosier was taken to Norfolk to be put to work on the earthen defenses there, but while en route, he escaped from his captor (again!) and made haste toward the Southern Branch of the Elizabeth River.  Since there was a great deal of boat traffic along the river, he waited until nightfall to cross.  Hosier then tied his clothes up in a bundle, placed them on his head, and swam across the river.  Once safely on the other side, he proceeded toward the Deep Creek Canal and then into the Dismal Swamp, where he was safe from recapture.  From there, he planned to cross Lake Drummond and make his way back home.  Picking up with Arnold’s telling of this adventure:

“It was at that place he performed his great feat.  He could not procure a boat, and the prospect before him was gloomy indeed.  If he remained there he would, in all probability, have been devoured by bears and other wild animals in the Swamp, or perhaps, starve.  Not being in the least daunted, he prepared himself to reach the western shore, which could only be done by swimming. It was seven miles across, but he nerved himself to the accomplishment of his object.  He prepared himself as before by making a bundle of his clothes, which he placed on the top of his head, and was then ready to swim across or perish in the attempt.  When he was about half-way across he was attacked by a large serpent, and had it not been for a school of gars that was following him, he would no doubt have been devoured.  He reached the shore only to meet a more formidable enemy.  It was a large black bear.  In his scuffle with the serpent he had lost his bundle of clothes and had nothing but a large knife, which was buckled around his waist. Drawing his knife, he rushed forward and was met by the bear, when a regular hand-to-hand fight was commenced.  He did not wrestle long before he found an opportunity to use his knife, and plunging it up to the hilt, he soon had the bear lying prostrate at his feet. Having lost all his clothes, it became necessary that he should do something in his nude state. The bear’s skin was the only thing that he could get, so with his knife he skinned him, and getting inside the skin, he started to find some settlement.  But his condition was as bad as before.  The idea of his being able to get near enough to any person to tell of his condition was absurd.  The very sight of him would scare every man, woman and child off the plantation.  He could not get a living soul to come to him, and it was not until he had reached his own home, some few miles from Suffolk, that he could present himself as Mr. Hosier.”

Following the war and in the midst of Reconstruction, Richard Hosier went back to farming.  As he learned to cope during such a trying period for the South, he was dealt with another blow, the loss of his wife.  Her death left Hosier with five young kids to take care of, including their last child, J. Walter Hosier, who was born during the war in 1863.

A few years later, seeing that his children needed a maternal figure in their life, Hosier remarried on January 5, 1871, this time to Sarah Henderson Williamson, whose husband Richard Williamson had died in the late 1860s.  Richard and Sarah had three children together: Blanche Hosier, born in 1872; William Paul Hosier, born in 1874; and Robbin Hosier, born about 1877.  Richard and Sarah’s time together was short though, as Sarah died sometime in the 1880s or 90s, leaving Hosier again a widow.

With most of his children now grown, Richard Hosier found other ways to occupy his time.  In 1895, the Tom Smith Camp United Confederate Veterans was formed in Suffolk, and Hosier was an active member of this veterans’ group.  By this point, however, age was catching up with him.  In 1898, Hosier turned eighty years old, but was diagnosed with cancer a month after his birthday.  He fought the illness for about a year, but finally succumbed to the disease on the morning of September 25, 1899, after being in a coma for nearly a week.  At the time of his death, he was eighty-one years old, and the second oldest person in Suffolk.  His funeral took place at the Suffolk Christian Church, followed by the burial in Cedar Hill Cemetery.

Richard Hosier was survived by only six out of twelve of his known children.  The oldest was Richard T. Hosier, who moved from Suffolk in the 1870s, and became a farmer in the Western Branch area of Norfolk County (now Chesapeake).  The next was Samuel Sampson Hosier, who married Florine V. Gay in 1888, and lived in Suffolk.  One son, William Paul Hosier, eventually settled with his family in Mississippi.  A daughter, Blanche Hosier, married Charles H. Smith of North Carolina, and they moved to Boston, Massachusetts.  There is also an unidentified daughter who is noted in the obituary only as Mrs. M.E. Philhower.  The most notable of the Hosier children was J. Walter Hosier.  Walter served on the Suffolk City Council for a number of years, and also ran an insurance company in Suffolk.  Following his death in 1955, the insurance business was continued by his son, Henry Duke Hosier.  Today, while the insurance company no longer remains in the Hosier family, it still retains his name, “J. Walter Hosier & Son Insurance.”

Of course, this story is not complete without again mentioning that following his death, Hosier’s family placed a stone on his grave in Cedar Hill Cemetery with his name, no dates, and the word “Mosby.”  Of all the epitaphs, this one was certainly fitting.  Undoubtedly, his stories of adventure and escape would have made the original “Gray Ghost” very proud.