June 4: Memorial Service to Honor General Junius Daniel of Halifax

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On Sunday, June 4, 2017 at 2:30 in the afternoon, the General Matt W. Ransom Camp #861, Sons of Confederate Veterans, will host a Confederate memorial service at the grave of Brigadier General Junius Daniel.  This grave site is located within the bounds of the state historic site in Halifax, North Carolina at the Colonial Cemetery.   Attorney and historian Fred D. Taylor of Suffolk, Virginia, will speak on the life and service of the General, who fell in battle at the “Bloody Angle” during the Battle of Spotsylvania Court House in May of 1864.

A number of distinguished guests will attend to bring greetings, to include Mrs. Peggy Johnson, President, North Carolina Division, United Daughters of the Confederacy, and Commander Kevin Stone, North Carolina Division, Sons of Confederate Veterans. Additionally, the Ellis Battery, Northampton Artillery and numerous reenactors will also be in attendance.

A display of Daniel related items and relics will be on display.

The public is invited to this event, and we hope you will attend!

For more information, please visit the General Matt W. Ransom Camp SCV Facebook Page.

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Combat Veteran says: “Virginia’s War Memorials Are Still Protected”

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Statement by:  Colonel Greg Eanes, USAF (Retired)[1]

Governor Terry McAuliffe’s veto of HB 587, the clarifying language to Virginia’s war memorial protection law has no impact on existing state code. The Governor’s veto of HB587 only means the state code may at some point be tested in a court of law at great financial expense to localities and the taxpayers of those localities.

HB 587 was meant only to clarify existing state code to say in plain language that Virginia’s war memorial protections law encompasses all war memorials regardless of when they were built. The current law implies in language, logic and context that this is already the case. However, a Danville judge last year, in a case in which he ruled the law did not apply, observed the law might be misinterpreted and should be clarified by the General Assembly.

Veterans of Foreign Wars (VFW) Post 7819 in Crewe and veterans from other VFW, American Legion and American Veterans (AMVETS) posts requested language to clarify the law. HB 587 was requested by American military veterans. Delegate Charles Poindexter rose to the occasion to sponsor that legislationThe bill was actively and publicly supported by the Department of Virginia VFW, the Department of Virginia AMVETS, the 5th District American Legion, the Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War, the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States and the Virginia Department of Historic Resources.

Virginia’s existing law has protected our war memorials sparing communities needless discord and saving millions in litigation dollars. HB 587 was meant to ensure such would remain the case. The General Assembly clarified the existing state code’s intent. Regardless of the Governor’s veto, the General Assembly’s clarification is now a matter of public record.

In honoring our gallant war dead, veteran service organizations do not discriminate on one’s period or place of service or the often divisive politics surrounding the various wars. Politics has no place as men and women served and serve where they are called. This includes Confederate veterans who are, by law, custom and practice, American veterans. All American veterans are treated equally. What impacts one, impacts all.

Our honored dead cannot speak for themselves therefore we the living must speak on their behalf.  Virginia’s veterans have done so by asking for and supporting HB 587.

Background Information

Veteran’s service organizations (VSO) have been involved in a number of costly and litigious war memorial preservation fights across the country in recent years.  Among these:

  • In 1994 the Air Force Association, joined by other VSOs, fought to correct a politically motivated Smithsonian interpretation of World War II’s Enola Gay, the plane that dropped the first atomic bomb. The political activists tried to depict the United States as evil and the Japanese as victims;
  • In 2015 the American Legion was successful in protecting Bladensburg, Maryland World War I Veterans Memorial. Atheists wanted to either “demolish” the memorial or deface it by cutting off the arms of the cross to make it a “slab” citing the shape of the Christian cross was offensive. The American Legion spokesman said, “We’ll continue to defend this veteran’s memorial to see that it stands for another hundred years. The men it honors, others who have served, and those in uniform today deserve no less.”
  • In 2015, after 25 years of costly litigation, the Veterans of Foreign Wars was successful in protecting the Mount Soledad Veterans Memorial Cross, a Korean War memorial in San Diego.

Elsewhere Vietnam memorials have been vandalized and one has been taken down while two war memorials in Hawaii (one each for World War I and World War II) are targeted for destruction so the space can be used for economic development.  These incidents, and many others across the country, illustrate an intolerant mindset that has threatened and continues to threaten American war memorials and the memory of the American veteran.

Every major veteran service organization has a memorial and remembrance component to their charters.  Preserving and protecting American war memorials is a ‘veteran’ issue.

[1] Eanes is the Action Officer for Veterans of Foreign Wars Post 7819 and a mayoral candidate in the Town of Crewe.

Man Seeks Information About Local Company of Soldiers

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The Daily HeraldThe Daily Herald (Roanoke Rapids, North Carolina)

January 19, 2016

by Jenny Gray

Article Source

On the morning of April 9, 1865, men from the Roanoke Valley fought in the Battle of Appomattox Court House, the final engagement of the Army of North Virginia before surrendering — and thus ending — the Civil War.

The Confederate capital of Richmond, Va., was lost to the South. Retreat was cut off by Union forces. Losing that morning battle brought General Robert E. Lee to the courthouse that afternoon where he signed the documents of surrender and gave up his sword.

Standing there was the company that included members from Halifax, Warren and Northampton counties. Now an area historian wants to know what made them tick.

Attorney, historian and author, Fred Taylor grew up visiting his grandmother on the banks of the Roanoke River. His forefathers operated Eaton’s Ferry, and somewhere along the line he learned of the Roanoke Minute Men, a Littleton-area militia that formed before the Civil War, and fought in that war from the start to the finish.

“For me personally, I’ve always been a history buff,” Taylor said during a recent visit in which he gathered more research on this militia. “A lot of people think history’s boring. It’s abstract. It happened 100 years ago.”

But that’s not how Taylor said he feels. Following in the footsteps of a family member, he started building on the family genealogy about two decades ago and was hooked.

“All this history comes back to my own family,” he said. “My dad grew up on the Roanoke River, and later, Lake Gaston. My grandfather pulled Eaton’s Ferry.”

Then along came the story of the Roanoke Minute Men and Taylor’s hobby turned into something more serious.

“My first big find was the diary of a soldier during the Civil War, and I was related to him,” Taylor said. “I started reading that and seeing how these guys fit into a bigger story.”

His hunt began in earnest last spring as he read more and more accounts of this band of local soldiers. Taylor has assembled a detailed roster of the Company including individual service records and period letters and accounts from the early day of the company, formed in 1864. He has corresponded with and met Roanoke Minute Men descendants and visited state and local archives, gathering more information.

He learned that the Company was among the first to serve in the Civil War.

“They formed as a militia just before the Civil War and eventually went from Littleton to Weldon, and then over to Garysburg to train,” Taylor said. “One-hundred and forty men ended up serving in the unit.”

Taylor said while his book will include military information, that’s not the goal. Troop movements during the Civil War are well documented, but to get to the heart of his subject, Taylor said he wants to make it personal.

“My preference is not talking about battles or generals; I’d like to know more about these soldiers,” he said.

The initial diary, Taylor added, wasn’t about war, per se. It was about how the soldier felt.

“He talked about love and poetry and there were some religious overtones,” Taylor said of the diary. “I don’t think any soldier can be in battle without getting a little closer to their maker.”

Most of these soldiers had never gone more than a few miles from home, Taylor said, and must have been frightened at times.

“My focus has been trying to emphasize their story — that life of the enlisted soldier who left family and loved ones and marched off hundreds of miles away to face enormous odds,” he added. “I think this sort of veterans’ story strikes a chord with anyone, regardless of age or race or what war we are discussing, or even whether or not they like history.”

To gather information, Taylor travels as often as he can while still managing his law practice in Suffolk, Va. He also has used the Internet, creating a website at: fredonhistory.com/roanoke-minute-men

Taylor, whose roots go back to the Jamestown Colony, also has a Facebook presence at www.facebook.com/roanokeminutemen.

Anyone from the Littleton area will recognize many of the surnames on the list of soldiers: Allen, Bobbitt, Holt, Kearney and Newsom, among others.

“Their average age was about 25 years old; literally every 18 to 40 year old, able-bodied man went,” Taylor said. “I’m gong to tell the big picture but I want these people to speak for themselves. And I want to be able to tell what was going on at home.”

He spoke of one of the company’s members, a black soldier named Hilliard Goings. Taylor said he was close to his fellow soldiers, including Newsom Jenkins.

“He served as a pallbearer at his funeral, and went to all the veterans’ reunions,” Taylor said of Goings. “I want to cover it all, and find the motivation to what prompts a young man to leave home and stability to go fight for four years. And what was the effect of that on their families. … I want to get down into the heart of that.”

So Taylor is asking people to help him find these photographs, diaries and letters. For more information about the Roanoke Minute Men project, or to make submissions to this effort, contact Taylor at roanokeminutemen@gmail.com, telephone at 757-705-0950, or by mail to: 160 West Washington St., Suffolk, VA. 23434. All submissions will be properly credited to the owner, he said.

 

Update on the Roanoke Minute Men Project and a Happy New Year!

First, I would like to wish you all a blessed and prosperous new year as we go into 2016!

Now, for an update that many have been asking for …

When I began the Roanoke Minute Men Project in the spring of 2015, I underestimated the response it would create.  For years, I had “tinkered” with writing a history of Company A or the 14th North Carolina Troops, but had never felt like I could add to the histories already out there in the public (such as, The Anson Guard).   But slowly that changed, as I collected more and more accounts that had previously gone unpublished, or those that took up a mere footnote in some other history text.  That gave me the courage to start my journey, and so I began simply with my rough file of notes, a list of soldiers names, and this website to chart my course publicly.

Since that time, I have managed (part-time) to put together a detailed roster of the Company, to include individual service records, which encompasses on its own eighty-five plus pages of text.  This does not include the background and family history data that I ultimately intend to add.

Additionally, I have now collected and transcribed over a dozen period letters and accounts, ranging from the early days of the Company’s formation through 1864 (still looking for an 1865 letter!)   While a dozen letters may not seem like a lot, I started my journey with only three letters, a diary, and several post-War accounts.  Today, I wrap up the year having gone through and transcribed all of those, and have on hand as I type this FIFTEEN (yes, 15!) more letters sitting on my desk to transcribe.   To say I am excited about the stories these letters tell is an understatement, and this progress has helped to encourage my efforts into the new year.

I have also been blessed to correspond with and meet numerous Roanoke Minute Men descendants and family historians who have shared their own research with me, and have had the opportunity to do research at some of the South’s foremost academic institutions and historical archives.  I can not say enough good things about the staffs at the Rubenstein Library at Duke UniversityWilson Library at UNCState Archives of North Carolina, North Carolina Museum of History, Virginia Historical Society, and countless smaller libraries, local historical societies and courthouses that I have had the pleasure to work with over the past year.

From here, I still have a long way to go before I reach the finished product, but in the meantime please do not forget I am always looking for more letters, diaries, family histories, and images of the soldiers themselves to add to this history and honor the story of those brave veterans of the Roanoke Minute Men.

As always, I thank you all for the assistance, input, and kind words you have provided along the way, and I look forward to “charging on” into the new year!

Regards,

Fred

roanokeminutemen at gmail dot com

 

Thanksgiving, A Southern Tradition Since 1619

by Fred D. Taylor, originally published November 2005 in the Suffolk News-Herald; updated November 2015.

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As Thanksgiving is just days away, I decided to change the pace away from simply discussing someone of local significance or an historic battle, and talk a little about the history of the first English Thanksgiving in America.

While most school children in the last few weeks have been performing plays celebrating that spectacular gathering between the Pilgrims and the Indians, the truth of the matter is they got it all wrong.  Gasp!  Yes, I’m here popping the bubble of all the little kids who dressed up in their pilgrim hats and buckled shoes, or Indian headdresses, to tell the story the history books didn’t want them to know…

Despite popular American nostalgia that the first Thanksgiving was held by the Pilgrims after the arrival of the Mayflower at Plymouth Rock, it actually had its beginnings just a few miles from us along the James River at present-day Berkeley (pronounced Bark-lee) Plantation in Charles City County.

The year was 1619, twelve years after the establishment of Jamestown, when a group of thirty-eight settlers aboard the ship Margaret arrived after having made a ten-week journey across the Atlantic.  Upon their landing, they knelt and prayed on the rich Tidewater soil, with their Captain John Woodlief proclaiming:

“Wee ordaine that the day of our ships arrivall at the place assigned for plantacion in the land of Virginia shall be yearly and perpetually keept holy as a day of thanksgiving to Almighty God.”

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As historically recorded, this event was the first English Thanksgiving in the New World.  So why the big deal about the Pilgrims and the first Thanksgiving being at Plymouth Rock?  Good question.  Some historians follow the trail to northern-written textbooks (after the War Between the States, of course), but even then anything more than a cursory study of colonial history will lead one to the discrepancy between the dates of the first Thanksgiving.   Yet, we continue today to recognize the Plymouth Thanksgiving as the first, despite the clear evidence to the contrary.  In fact, the irony of all ironies is that not only did Virginia’s Thanksgiving celebration occur before the one in Massachusetts, the Pilgrims had not even landed in America yet!  The Pilgrims arrival would come one year and seventeen days later in 1620, and their Thanksgiving celebration nearly two years later in 1621.

Celebrations of “thanksgiving” would become a deeply rooted American tradition though, usually brought on by periods of great hardship.  During the American Revolution, the Continental Congress proclaimed days of Thanksgiving every year from 1778 to 1784.  Likewise, George Washington issued the first Presidential proclamation of Thanksgiving in 1789, and a few of his successors followed suit.  Interestingly, Thanksgiving was not a specific day or even month, and apparently was issued on the whim of whoever was in office.  Sporadically between the years 1789 and 1815, days of Thanksgiving were recognized in January, March, April, October, and November.  This recognition of Thanksgiving ended in 1815 following the term of President James Madison, and a President would not issue such a proclamation for another forty-six years.

That President was Jefferson F. Davis, who recognized a day of thanks, humiliation, and prayer for the young Confederate States of America for October 31st, 1861.  Not to be outdone, President Abraham Lincoln resurrected the forgotten day in the United States as well, and issued a similar proclamation in April of 1862.  In 1863, Thanksgiving was made a national holiday, and in 1866, the tradition of recognizing Thanksgiving on the fourth Thursday of November was started by President Andrew Johnson.

From that time on, every sitting President has recognized Thanksgiving as a national holiday.  Nonetheless, the twists in the story continue.  While the recognition of the holiday has been uninterrupted since 1861, the explanations of the origins of Thanksgiving have been numerous.  For years, the residents of the Oval Office ignored Virginia’s claim to the first Thanksgiving, but that all changed in 1963.  It took a Massachusetts Yankee by the name of John F. Kennedy to take the risk of alienating his constituency back home to tell the rest of the story.  President Kennedy honored Massachusetts’s and Virginia’s claim in his proclamations of 1963 at the urgency of his Special Assistant Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., a noted historian and political scientist.  After Kennedy’s death, President Johnson mentioned Virginia twice, President Jimmy Carter recognized it in 1979, and the last to recognize Virginia’s claim was President Ronald Reagan in 1985.

Today, the struggle to tell the true story of Thanksgiving continues in classrooms across America, and even more so here at home in Virginia where it all started.  For several years now, a group of concerned citizens have organized an annual event to celebrate the First Thanksgiving at Berkeley, and each year they recreate that historic event on the shores of the James River.

In the wake of America’s 400th Anniversary in 2007, the necessity to tell the real Thanksgiving story is all the more important.  So as you prepare for Thanksgiving this year, take a few minutes to reflect on this story, and to pass this tidbit of history along to others.  Every little bit helps in getting the truth out.  As for me this year, I’ve certainly got plenty to be thankful for, but in honour of those courageous thirty-eight who arrived on the shores of Virginia in 1619, I’ll be substituting my turkey and stuffing for Smithfield Ham and Chesapeake Bay Oysters.

My Latest Project

PRESS RELEASE

DATE:  March 15, 2015

Re:     Research for new book on veterans from Littleton, North Carolina

In December of 1860, a militia company known as the Roanoke Minute Men formed in Littleton, made up primarily of citizens from Halifax and Warren Counties.  This Company enlisted into state service for North Carolina, and later into the Confederate cause, as Company A, 14th Regiment North Carolina State Troops (formerly the 4th North Carolina Volunteers.)  Throughout four years of bloody conflict, this Company saw action from the early days of the War on the Virginia peninsula all the way to the last shots fired at Appomattox.

While recognized as one of the Tar Heel state’s greatest fighting units, no formal unit history has ever been compiled of the men who served in the Roanoke Minute Men – until now – and this work focuses on rare and previously unpublished letters, diaries, family histories, and service records to tell the story of these brave veterans and their families.

Although substantial progress on the history of the Roanoke Minute Men has already been made, historian Fred D. Taylor hopes to engage public support for his efforts and seeks submission of individual family histories, images of veterans both in uniform and as civilians, war-time accounts, and/or  letters of the men who served in this unit.

Family surnames included in the research of this Company are:  Adams, Ales, Allen, Allsbrook, Aycock, Barkley, Bobbitt, Bolton, Boon, Boswell, Brown, Burge, Burrows, Camp, Carlena, Carroll, Cherry, Clements, Day, Deaton, Eaton, Edmonds, Edwards, Felts or Feltz, Floore, Floyd, Forrest, Goodson, Hardister, Hardy, Harper, Harris, Herbert, Hicks, Holt, House, Hurley, Ingram, Jarrald, Jenkins, Johnston, Kearney, King, Lancaster, Latham, Lewis, Lynch, McCarson, McCaskill, Marlow, Mathews, Moore, Morris(s), Munn, Myrick, Nevill, Newsom, Parsons, Pendergrass, Peterson, Pittard, Pryor, Pugh, Riggan, Roberts, Rodgers, Rooker, Scarlett, Shearin, Tucker, Turner, Vick, Walker, Webb, Williams, Wilson, Wright, Yarbrough, and Yeourns.

For more information about the Roanoke Minute Men project, or to make submissions to this effort, please contact Fred D. Taylor at roanokeminutemen@gmail.com, telephone at 757-705-0950, or by mail to:  160 West Washington Street, Suffolk, Virginia 23434.  All submissions will be properly credited to the owner.

Fred D. Taylor, whose family hails from the Littleton, North Carolina, area, is a native of Virginia, holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in history from Old Dominion University, a Juris Doctorate from the Mercer University School of Law, and is an attorney by profession in Suffolk, Virginia.

HistoryMobile Rolling into Historic Downtown Suffolk

Press Release from the City of Suffolk Division of Tourism

VIRGINIA’S CIVIL WAR 150 HISTORY MOBILE
ROLLING INTO HISTORIC DOWNTOWN SUFFOLK

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SUFFOLK, VA (March 3, 2015) History is on the move in Virginia as the Civil War 150 HistoryMobile rolls into Suffolk for a two day visit on Friday, March 13th, and Saturday, March 14th, from 10:00 a.m. until 5:00 p.m. both days. The exhibit, an initiative of the Virginia Sesquicentennial of the American Civil War Commission, will be located at the Suffolk Visitor Center, 524 North Main Street. Admission to the HistoryMobile is free and open to the public. These “history days” are presented by the Suffolk Division of Tourism partnering with the Suffolk Public Library, Riddick’s Folly House Museum and the Hilton Garden Inn Suffolk Riverfront.

In addition to the HistoryMobile exhibit, the event also includes tours and a living history reenactment at Riddick’s Folly House Museum; guided tours of historic Downtown Suffolk and the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge; and a genealogy workshop and a history presentation. Stop by the Historic Seaboard Station Railroad Museum to browse the large selection of Historical Society publications and learn about the importance and history of railroads in Suffolk while viewing the HO scale railroad model of 1907 Suffolk.

The HistoryMobile uses immersive spaces and interactive exhibits to draw together stories of the Civil War and emancipation from the viewpoints of those who experienced it across Virginia—young and old, enslaved and free, soldier and civilian. Visitors will encounter history in ways they may have never experienced before. The HistoryMobile exhibit is divided into four sections: Battlefront, Homefront, Journey to Freedom, and Loss-Gain-Legacy. From the bewildering sense of chaos experienced by soldiers, to the last letter written by a dying son to his father after sustaining a mortal wound, to a hushed conversation between a husband and wife considering the great risks and rewards of fleeing to freedom, the HistoryMobile presents the stories of real people in Virginia whose lives were shaped by the historic events of the 1860s, and invites visitors to imagine, “What Would You Do?”

The Civil War 150 HistoryMobile crosses the state visiting museums, schools, and special events. Its tour began in July 2011, and since then it has made over 120 stops and attracted visitors from every state and a number of other countries.
In addition to learning more about Virginia’s history, the HistoryMobile also provides visitors with information from Virginia Tourism about the many historic sites and destinations that they can explore today.

Admission to the Virginia Civil War 150 HistoryMobile is free and open to the public. For additional information on event happenings in conjunction with the HistoryMobile visit such as tour reservations, associated costs and times contact the Suffolk Visitor Center at 757-514-4130 or visitsuffolk@suffolkva.us. Space is limited on tours. Advance reservations are required.

Friday, March 13, 2015 Activities

10am-5pm HistoryMobile open to schools and public

10am-4pm Riddick’s Folly House Museum open for hourly tours ($5 per person)

10am Washington Ditch Boardwalk Guided Walk ($5 per person; reservations required)

11am-4pm Suffolk Seaboard Station Railroad Museum open to public for tours (donation)

12pm Great Dismal Swamp’s Underground Railroad Network to Freedom Pavilion Tour ($5 per person; reservations required)

3pm Historic Downtown Narrated Bus Tour ($5 per person, reservations required)

6pm Legends of Main Street: A Suffolk Ghost Walk ($10 per person; reservations required)

Saturday, March 14, 2015 Activities

10am-5pm HistoryMobile open to public

10am-4pm Riddick’s Folly House Museum open for hourly tours ($5 per person)

10am-4pm Period reenactments on the grounds of Riddick’s Folly (free)

10am-1pm Genealogy Workshop with the “Daughters of the American Revolution” at Morgan Memorial Library

10am Washington Ditch Boardwalk Guided Walk ($5 per person; reservations required)

10am-3pm Suffolk Seaboard Station Railroad Museum open to public for tours (donation)

12pm Great Dismal Swamp’s Underground Railroad Network to Freedom Pavilion Tour ($5 per person; reservations required)

2pm-3pm “The Battle of Suffolk: Through Soldier’s Letters,” a presentation by Kermit Hobbs at Morgan Memorial Library

3pm Historic Downtown Narrated Bus Tour ($5 per person, reservations required)

6pm Legends of Main Street: A Suffolk Ghost Walk ($10 per person; reservations required)

Andrew Jackson Moseley, 1834-1908

From the memorial speech given by D.W. Taylor at the Confederate gravestone dedication for Andrew Jackson Moseley at Jerusalem United Methodist Church, Wise, Warren County, North Carolina.  

The man whom we are gathered here to commemorate was born on August 11th, 1834 in Brunswick County, Virginia, the second son of Hardaway Moseley (of Brunswick County, Virginia) and Harriet Richardson (of Warren County, North Carolina).  He was named after the military hero and then presiding 7th President of the United States, Andrew Jackson.  Little is known of Andrew Jackson Moseley’s childhood, except that he was raised on a farm that his father ran concurrently with a blacksmith shop.  This proved later to serve as the training ground and course of profession that Andrew was to follow for the remainder of his life.  In 1850, the Moseley family was living just across the Roanoke River in the Gasburg area of Brunswick County, Virginia.  Here, he met and married Margaret Caroline Barner, from the nearby community of Ebony, Virginia on April 2nd, 1856.  Shortly thereafter, Andrew’s father died.  Will records show that Andrew purchased from the estate blacksmith materials and livestock of his father’s shop and farm.  Andrew and Caroline’s first child, Sarah Jane, was born on July 20, 1857.

Tax records of 1859 and 1860 show prosperous growth in assets, indicating the beginning of a successful career.  The 1859 records showed that Andrew had 14 livestock valued at $10, 1 clock valued at $5, a $75 horse (rather valuable for the time), and miscellaneous household items worth $50, for which he paid a county tax of $1.36.  The next year, he had obviously re-accessed his career course, directing his efforts toward blacksmithing, as he had sold all of his livestock and invested a considerable amount of his gain into the purchase of a servant to assist in his business.  That year’s tax records shows that he had, in addition to the servant, a horse (or mule) valued at a much lower $20, no livestock, and the same household items as the year before, but at a tax value of $2.34 (almost double that of the previous year).  This however, may not have been a completely wise decision, as the next few years would not only change his financial situation, but would change his homeland and way of life forever.

By April of 1860, a second child, my great-grandmother (Elizabeth Barner Moseley) was born.  Little could Andrew have known at the time that just 364 days later the political upheaval at national and state levels would reach a crest and the most devastating war in our history would break out.  Also, he could not have known that the two states in which he was to call home would be shattered with greater losses in blood and property than any states before or since that time.

Now with five mouths to feed, and another child on the way, Andrew saw his brother-in-law and many of his friends and neighbors marching off to war.  Undoubtedly like many others of the time, he was torn between his patriotic duties and his immediate family responsibilities.  Nevertheless, he had a skill that was in high demand in the South, as virtually every item of war and survival of an economy must now be made at home.  Thus, Andrew continued on with his blacksmith business for another year.

But the tide of war was nothing like the slight scuffle expected in the beginning, and the troops signed up for a year were beginning to realize that the Federal Government of the United States was a formidable adversary.  Military needs now outweighed economic needs and Andrew was faced with decision to leave his home and family and join the call of his State and Country.  By the time Andrew J. Moseley had joined the Confederate Army, his regiment was a veteran organization of 16 months service, having been originated as a militia company in December 1860 around a nucleus of well-to-do Richmond men.  That company grew rapidly as the threat of war loomed greater.   Twice it was called into action due to suspected threats of attack, and it was twice shelled by Federal gunboats, prior to being formed with other companies and mustered into official service as the 21st Virginia Infantry, in June of 1861.  The remaining companies being comprised of men from Brunswick, Charlotte, Mecklenburg, Cumberland, Buckingham, Pittsylvania, Prince Edward, and Nottoway Counties in Virginia, and the City of Baltimore, Maryland.

The initial officers led by Colonel (later General) William Gilham consisted in part of Lt. Col. John M. Patton, Jr. (Great Uncle of WWII General George S. Patton, III) and the later famous publisher, as Sgt. Major, Virginius Dabney.

Like in most military units, both North and South, hard marching, unsanitary conditions, disease of epidemic proportion and insufficient commissary services immediately began to take a toll on the men.  Just as the men began to toughen and to think that they had survived the worse, they were assigned in November to General Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson’s Brigade.  It was with this brigade, made famous by Jackson’s rapid marches up and down the Shenandoah Valley, surprising and confusing the enemy, that they became known as “Jackson’s Foot Cavalry”.  Their hard marching changed to hard fighting on Sunday, March 23, 1862, where Jackson’s men met Gen. Nathan Bank’s superior force of Federal troops at Kernstown, Virginia, just 2 miles from Winchester.  Here, the 21st Virginia lost 60 men, 22% of the regiment, with one officer killed and four officers wounded, including one of Andrew’s in-laws, Thomas J. Barner, who was wounded in this battle.  Many officers were spared in this conflict as they were at the moment absent on recruiting service.

One such officer was Captain A. D. Kelly, who just three days later, on March 26, signed up Andrew Jackson Moseley, his brother John D. Moseley and a number of their friends into service at Rock Store in Gholsonville, Brunswick County, Virginia.  Given less than one week to set their personal affairs in order and bid their families good-by, the new recruits marched off to meet their new comrades on April 4th.  Andrew’s third child, Bob Moseley, was now just 5 months old.

Andrew and John had just joined their command (as volunteers) when the army was reorganized on April 21st, setting up for the duration of a long drawn out war.  (Incidentally, brother John was back in Brunswick County on April 20th to marry Caroline’s sister and the namesake of Andrews first child, Mary Jane Barner).

Their first trial by fire came on May 8th when they were involved in the Battle of McDowell on Bull Pasture Mountain.  Fortunately, here and later in the Battle of Winchester, the unit suffered little harm, although in the Battle of Winchester they were under heavy artillery and musket fire for over 90 minutes.

Their next duty had them marching prisoners of war up the valley (southward) and then traveling by rail to Lynchburg.  Returning to regular duty, the 21st marched northward along the eastern ridge of the mountains to Charlottesville, where they reattached to their command.

They then looped northeastward to unite with Generals Longstreet and A. P. Hill in support of General Lee’s counter-offensive style defense of Yankee Gen. George McClellan’s Peninsular Campaign in his attempt to take Richmond.  Jackson’s men, now, too well equipped with guns, equipment, and clothing captured at Winchester, for once failed their well-earned reputation as “foot cavalry”, arriving late for each in the series of battles known of as the Seven Days Battles.  Nevertheless, they provided the needed backup support to assure victory for the South, and because of their strenuous trek, Jackson’s men were marched back to Richmond and granted one whole day’s leave.

With a few short rests during the remainder of June and July, Jackson entered headlong into a major battle on August 9th, driving between portions of the Union Army of the Potomac at Cedar Mountain.  After two hours of hard fighting, the 21st Virginia found themselves virtually surrounded by the enemy after the 1st Virginia Battalion on their left flank was routed.  One officer of the 21st reported that “The enemy got in our rear (with)in thirty steps of us before we found it out.”  Regardless, according to Gen. Wm. B. Taliaferro’s official report, “The 21st Virginia Regiment, ….poured a destructive fire upon the enemy and exhibited a degree of heroic gallantry rarely ever witnessed.”  With rifles empty and no time to reload, one of the rare moments of actual hand-to-hand combat followed, with the bayonet freely being used.  This may have been the 21st’s finest hour, but also, the most tragic, with a 50% casualty rate including the loss of their Lt. Col., Richard Cunningham.  Needless to say, the unit fell apart under the tremendous pressure and many men were captured, some of them reportedly being killed after their surrender.

For Andrew Moseley and his surviving comrades, this was a prelude for things to come.  On the 30th of August, in what was to become known as Second Manassas, the 21st Virginia was being held in reserve due to the lack of ammunition.  About 4:00 pm, the Federals stormed their position and the regiment was ordered to charge with empty guns.  Using a railroad cut as natural fortifications, and with only bayonets, rocks and rifles as clubs, they drove back the charge. Two days later, the 21st fought in the nearby Battle of Chantilly in a thunderstorm with torrential rain.  With this the 21st VA headed toward Maryland and the Battle of Sharpsburg.  Andrew, however, headed toward Richmond, Va., and hospitals there disabled from a gunshot wound.  It is not known which of the battles he was wounded in, as the first record shows him in Richmond on September 4th, where he stayed until furloughed home to Brunswick Co., on November 4th through December 29th, 1862.  Incidentally, Jones Clary, the man who was later to be Andrew’s second father-in-law was killed sometime during these same battles.

Despite hand to hand combat and a gunshot wound, the most trying time of his life came during this furlough, as his first child, Sara Jane died on December 14th, just before Christmas.  Returning to Richmond as required, records show Andrew debilitated and hospitalized until March of 1863, when he was declared unfit for further military service.  Though remaining on the 21st VA rolls, on March 23rd, Andrew was detailed by special orders from the Adj. & Inspector General’s Office, CSA to work in Tredegar Iron Works for the remainder of the war.  Again applying his trade as blacksmith, Andrew assisted in the manufacture of Cannon and other equipment for the Confederacy.

Whether by nature of injury or due to special skill it is not known, but about this time, Andrew’s brother, John, was detailed to work in a government shoe factory in Richmond.  Whether they were able to take their families to Richmond, it is, also, not known, but due to the severe shortage in living quarters, shortage of food, and high inflation, it is suspected that the families would have been better off in their home county.  If so, they probably would have been able to visit one another occasionally.  Anyway, Andrew and Caroline’s 3rd child, Allen, was born in November of 1863.

In Richmond, both Andrew and John were assigned to Company C, 6th Battalion of Local Defense, (later consolidated with the 2nd Battalion, forming the 2nd Regiment Infantry, Local Defense) which was made up of detached military and civil servants for the protection of the Capital City.  This force drilled regularly, and served local military needs as arose, but were fortunate in only being called into a couple of minor alarms on the outskirts of the city.  Their last assignment, however, was that of evacuating Richmond on that fateful day of April 3rd, 1865 when General Lee began his retreat to Appomattox.

Brother John apparently became permanently ill (possibly due to previous wounds) while in Richmond, as records indicate he requested retirement less than a month before Richmond fell.  Unfortunately, neither the request nor its reply survived the burning and subsequent evacuation of Richmond.  However, such a request would have been deemed serious, considering his age, marital status and the tide of war in which he was assigned to service.  Both Andrew and John returned to Brunswick County after the war, but John apparently never recovered from his illness or wound as he passed away on October 27th, 1866.

Andrew and Caroline returned to civilian life during the fateful period of Reconstruction.  During this time, however, they were blessed with two more children, Willie Cleveland, and James Turner.  Unfortunately, to close out this fateful chapter in history, Caroline Barner Moseley passed away in January of 1870, and her Sister Mary Jane Barner Moseley died (of consumption) a short time later in 1871, each leaving small children.

Regrouping his life, in October of 1873, Andrew took a new bride, Susan Clary (daughter of aforementioned Jones Clary) and moved to Warren Co., NC.  There, he assumed the position of overseer on the John Boyd, Jr. Plantation, located on the Eaton’s Ferry/Vaughan road.  Here Andrew supervised the farming operation, a general store, a cotton gin and ran a blacksmith shop, while Susan took care of their already large family.  In their spare time, Andrew and Susan increased their family size by seven more children.  First to arrive of the new union, was Nick (born in 1874), then Foote (born in 1876), Wilson (born in 1878, but whom presumably died at a young age).  Joe was born in 1881, but some relief came to the number of mouths to feed that year.  Sometime around 1880, a young widower from Brunswick County, by the name of Benjamin Ball Taylor, came to work as a farm hand, for Andrew.   Needless to say, he fell in love with the farmer’s daughter and they ran off and were married in 1881.  Andrew and Susan continued their family, possibly they felt it would be more cost effective to raise their on farm help.  Anyway the next to be born was Mary J. in 1885, followed by John Edward in 1891 and finally Thomas J. in 1893.

Sometime after this point disaster struck again, as Susan passed away, possibly during childbirth. We know little of Andrew’s situation with this large family at this point, except that the older children were reaching adulthood and setting out on their own.  Bob was married in 1894 and, both Allen and James began careers in the Navy. Clearly, he still had ties with Brunswick Co., as some of his children married and settled in that area.  It is not known where Susan and Wilson are buried, but it is possible that they were buried on the Boyd plantation, as there was an old cemetery near the Boyd house.  However, none of those graves had markers other than regular field stones.

Further, at this point John Boyd, Jr. had apparently been unsuccessful in maintaining his wealth, as he reportedly fancied (too well) the aristocrat life of the antebellum south.  The vast holdings began to crumble around him and by 1900, the property was purchased by Archer Wilson and Wiley Coleman.  Also, sometime before1900, Andrew had again gathered up his children and started afresh; this time in the community of Paschal, NC, where he again opened a blacksmith shop just a short distance from where we are now standing.  Not to be a widower long, he once again married, this time to a young widow herself, Annie Perkinson Williams, with two young children, Rosa Ann and John Robert Williams.  Together, they had two more children, Macon Gibbons in 1904 and Herbert Glen in 1906.

On February 21st , 1908, at the age of 76, Andrew Jackson Moseley passed away, or to paraphrase the words of his fearless leader and General, Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson, he “passed over the river to rest on the other side”. 

Andrew Jackson Moseley was a faithful husband, suffering through the deaths of two mates before leaving his last mate in death.  He was a proud father to fifteen children of his own and two step-children.  And, he was a tireless provider, serving his family and serving his country, working until his death in the profession taught by his father.

War and Reconstruction, Part 3 of 3

Originally published in the Suffolk News-Herald, August 2005

In my previous column, Charles Henry Causey had seen capture and parole, an assignment with the Confederate States Secret Service, and ultimately, an appointment to the command of Major General George Pickett.  In this last and final column, I will relate Causey’s final days of the war, and how a young man born in Delaware ended up making Suffolk his home.

By 1864, Charles Henry Causey had clearly found his niche and spent the remainder of the war as a scout and member of the famed Confederate Secret Service, working both in Pickett’s command and also through the War Department.  Not surprisingly, his entire record remains a bit of an enigma due such secret and dangerous operations.  Though a scant number of military service records, official reports, and letters do exist, for the most part Causey’s activities from 1861 to 1865 remain obscure.  When the National Archives compiled these records, they too noticed the irregularity of his “official” assignments.  In a statement filed by one of the records compilers, it was noted that there was “a slight endeavor on the part of Confederate authorities to make it appear that this man was on Signal Duty.”  However, there was “no indication that he knew anything of a signal code, or of any action except as a scout or spy.”  It was also pointed out that his support by General Pickett in 1863 was clearly emphatic as to the importance of his services, but “makes no mention of what they are.”

The one thing that is known is that Charles Henry Causey’s role in the Tidewater area certainly had a lasting effect on his life.  Apparently, during his time scouting in the Suffolk region he had the opportunity to meet the young Martha Josephine Prentis, daughter of Peter Bowdoin and Eliza Wrenn Prentis.  Martha was eighteen when Causey met her in 1863, and their relationship blossomed from those occasions when he could avoid the roaming Union cavalry parties that passed through Suffolk in 1864.  Despite the infrequency of their meetings in the midst of a raging war, they decided to take their courtship to the next level by the fall of that year.  On September 26, 1864, Charles Henry Causey and Martha Josephine Prentis were married in Suffolk.  But their time together was anything but a honeymoon, and was abruptly curtailed due to the dismal outlook of the Confederate army.  By the winter of 1864, Union General Grant had placed a stranglehold on Lee’s army, and the Signal Corps’ operations were limited to Pickett’s thin defenses on the south side of Petersburg.  Causey did manage to slip in and out of enemy lines and continue his reconnaissance work in the Tidewater region, but for the most part his previous services were no longer needed with the Confederate capital under siege.  In April of 1865, when Petersburg and Richmond were evacuated, Causey was presumably in the Tidewater area and was not with the army during Lee’s retreat or subsequent surrender at Appomattox.  Instead, he turned himself in to Federal authorities two weeks later on April 25, and was given a parole under the terms agreed upon by Lee and Grant.

Upon his parole, Charles Henry Causey returned for his bride in Suffolk, and started a family.  Their first child, William Bowdoin Causey, was born on June 11, 1865, and named for Charles Henry’s brother and Martha’s father.  Their second child was a daughter, Marianna Causey, born in 1866, and the Causey family continued to grow with the birth of Charles Henry Causey, Jr., born in 1868; Peter Prentis Causey, born in 1872; James Campbell Causey, born in 1874; Margaret Webb Causey, born in 1876; and Josephine Causey, born in 1878.  Records indicate two more children who died in infancy, but their names are unknown.

Besides the growth of his family, Charles Henry Causey’s law practice also took a turn for the better following the end of Reconstruction in 1870 and the removal of Federal troops from Virginia.  Among his clients included the Atlantic and Danville Railroad, as well as the Seaboard Airline Railroad, putting him in almost daily contact with his fellow Confederate comrade, General Laurence Simmons Baker who served as railroad agent in Suffolk.  This also gave Causey the opportunity to befriend former Confederate General William Mahone, a prominent railroad builder and the president of several railroad lines.  It was through Mahone that Causey became active in state politics.

In the late 1870s, Mahone became the leader of a somewhat unpopular group at the time known as the Readjuster party, which sought to lower Virginia’s prewar debt.  This group was a coalition of Democrats, Republicans, and African-Americans opposed to the Conservative Democrat platform that most ex-Confederates aligned themselves with.   In 1881 though, the Readjuster Party won control of the Governor’s Mansion with the election of William A. Cameron, and swept a number of seats in the Virginia General Assembly.  Charles Henry Causey supported these reform policies of Mahone, and became an active member of the Readjuster Party as a result.  In return for his support, Causey was named Clerk of the Virginia Senate in December of 1881, appointed to the Board of the Eastern Lunatic Asylum in 1882, and served as Commonwealth’s Attorney for Suffolk.

However, party politics would again change in the Old Dominion, and the Readjuster Party could not hold together its coalition of minority parties in order to stay in power.  Sensing the change in the political climate, Mahone made the bold move of aligning himself and the Adjuster Party with the Republican Party in 1884.  This created quite a storm in the state, as many considered then (and some still do today) the Republican Party as the “Party of Lincoln.”  As a result, a number of citizens ostracized Mahone and other ex-Confederates like Causey as scalawags, but in reality the Virginia electorate remained split fifty-fifty.

Charles Henry Causey, circa 1880s.

Locally, a number of Nansemond County and Suffolk citizens voted Republican in the 1880s.  It was through their support that Charles Henry Causey became the first Republican elected from Suffolk to the Virginia State Senate in 1884.  Charles Henry Causey served in the Senate until his term expired in 1887, and also became a Republican elector for the 2nd Congressional District.

Besides his political activities, Charles Henry Causey was also a prominent Mason and Odd Fellow, and an active member of the Pickett-Buchanan Camp of the United Confederate Veterans based in Norfolk.  At the time, the Tom Smith Camp in Suffolk had yet to be formed, and a number of Suffolk’s Confederate veterans held membership in the Norfolk camp.

In August of 1890, sickness struck Charles Henry Causey, and he was ill but for a few days when he suddenly passed away at 10:30 PM on Wednesday, August 27, at the young age of fifty-three years.  His death was announced in both the Suffolk and Norfolk newspapers, and came as a great shock to the community and all that knew him.  Prior to his passing, he had often remarked that he wished his funeral to be conducted by his comrades in the Pickett-Buchanan Camp, and per his wish, the old veterans of that group organized on the day of his funeral.  Due to his position as attorney for the Atlantic and Danville Railroad, the railroad offered a special train car from Norfolk to carry the Confederate veterans to Suffolk as they paid the last honors to their fallen comrade.

Captain Charles Henry Causey was laid to rest in Cedar Hill Cemetery on Friday, August 29, 1890.  He left a wife, and five children.  Of those, all rose to some prominence in the community, with Charles Henry Causey, Jr., and James Campbell Causey serving with the 4th Virginia Infantry from Suffolk during the Spanish-American War, William Bowdoin Causey serving as a Lieutenant Colonel of Engineers in World War I, and Peter Prentis Causey becoming a noted local doctor.  There is no doubt that a respect and reverence for military service was instilled in the hearts and minds of the Causey children, especially in Charles Henry Causey, Jr.  He rose to the rank of Captain during the Spanish-American War, and it was through his efforts that following the war Suffolk Post No. 57 of the American Legion was organized in our city.

Clearly, the accomplishments of his children were a reflection on the character and example left by Charles Henry Causey.  Yet, no greater testimony can be said of his life than the one given by the Norfolk Virginian newspaper (today’s Virginian-Pilot) at the time of his death:

“He was a prominent citizen of Suffolk, foremost in all enterprises, looking to the advancement of the section in which he lived, and his loss will be keenly felt…He was a good husband, an affectionate father and a devoted friend.”

Cedar Hill Cemetery, Suffolk, Virginia

The South’s 007, Part 2 of 3

Originally published in the Suffolk News-Herald, August 2005

At the close of the last column, Lieutenant Charles Henry Causey had received a rather favorable recommendation for promotion from Major General John Bankhead Magruder.  This letter asked of the Secretary of War that Causey be given the rank of Major, and placed in command of a battalion of cavalry that was being mustered into Confederate service in North Carolina, where he was stationed at the time.

Yet, that was not to be the fate of Causey.  Instead, he was promoted to the rank of Captain in November of 1862, and ordered once again to report to General Magruder, who was by then stationed in San Antonio, Texas.  From the records available, it appears that Causey never made it to Texas as ordered, but managed to get his assignment once again changed.  By the close of 1862, he was serving on the staff of Major General Arnold Elzey, Commander of the Department of Richmond, responsible for defending the Confederate capital.  Causey’s scouting services were once again employed in his new position, but were quickly interrupted in January of 1863.  Unfortunately, the records do not indicate how it occurred, but Causey was captured and sent to Old Capital Prison in Washington, D.C.  He spent about three months in prison, but was quickly exchanged and returned to Confederate service by April.

Upon his return, Charles Henry Causey was assigned to duty under Major William Norris, Commander of the Confederate States Signal Corps, and also a former staff officer under Magruder.  For the most part, the signal service was a team of signal “flagmen” who used flags during the day and torches by night to replicate the Morse code system of dots then used with the telegraph system.  Most importantly, this signal system found great use on the battlefield between distant units, as well as across large rivers that made the use of couriers or water-passage impossible.  However, while the Signal Corps operated out of a modest office in downtown Richmond, in reality its back room was the home of the Confederate Secret Service office, where a much greater degree of intelligence was relayed.  Here, valuable information was disseminated, usually in secret code, from operatives as far away as New York City and Europe.

Though assigned to service with the “Signal Corps,” it is more likely that Charles Henry Causey was as an agent with the more covert Secret Service.  Specifically, his assignment was for duty on the lower James River, which by that point in the war was completely under the occupation of the Union army.  His headquarters and rendezvous point was located across the James River, near Burwell’s Bay and Fort Boykin in Smithfield, a relative safe-haven given the nearby 20,000 Confederate troops involved in the Siege of Suffolk at the time.  Each night, or as often as possible, Causey would cross the James River to meet with other agents and friendly Southerners within the Federal lines.  On his first crossing on April 11 of 1863, Causey returned to Smithfield with valuable information as to Union troop movements on the Peninsula, including information as to whether reinforcements were being sent to Suffolk to block Confederate attempts to regain the city.  By April 20, less than two weeks later, Causey had successfully breeched the enemy lines as far in as Fortress Monroe, and reported back to the Confederate War Department with copies of Yankee newspapers, troop strengths on the Peninsula and Suffolk, the number of rations being issued, and reports on the number of naval vessels in the James River.

Charles Henry Causey maintained this system of nightly trips across the James River up through fall of 1863.  At that point, Causey fell out of favor with his Commander, Major Norris, and was told that his services were “no longer important.”  However, Causey’s operations during the year had put him in contact with another important branch of the Secret Service, a group known as the Independent Signal Corps.  This group, stationed exclusively in the Tidewater area was not under the command of Major Norris.  Rather, it was led by Major James F. Milligan, who had actually taught Norris the signal codes & operations, but was passed over for appointment to the regular Signal Corps.  Rather than create a rift between two powerful and important leaders in Signal Corps operations, the Confederate government allowed Milligan to maintain his Independent Signal Corps without ever having to report to Major Norris.

In his defense, Causey sought the support of Major General George Pickett, who he had worked with during the Siege of Suffolk campaign.  In an October letter from his headquarters in North Carolina, Pickett stated that since April, Causey “has, with five assistants, organized a line of communication with the enemy’s line in vicinity of Fortress Monroe, and has to the present time obtained daily intelligence, the latest New York papers, and kept open mail communication with all parts of the North.”  Ironically, the same day that Pickett issued this letter, he also appointed to his command Major James F. Milligan as his department’s chief signal officer.  Not surprisingly, all of this opened up another bitter dispute between Major Norris, Major Milligan & the role of the Independent Signal Corps, and Major General Pickett.  A week following Pickett’s letters, Norris again wrote to the Confederate high command that Causey’s services were no longer needed.  Yet, this attempt to discredit Causey by Major Norris was in vain, as General Pickett made it clear in his last and final letter on the subject, stating that Captain Causey be ordered to report to him, that he was not in the Signal Corps, and that he be ordered to report for duty, “at these Hdqrs., irrespective of the Signal Corps and Major Norris.”

This ended any questions on the subject, and on November 6, 1863, Captain Charles Henry Causey was ordered to report to the famed leader Major General George Pickett at Petersburg for assignment to duty.

In my next column, read about Captain Causey’s last two years in Confederate service, his marriage, and his new life in Suffolk following the war.