Many of you who know me are aware of my passion for history, and my interest and collection of Civil War-related items. For several years, that has included a focus on identified items in which I can bring the stories of the men and women from that period “to life.” Particularly, period images. Nothing brings history to life more than a photograph, where one can see a face and look into the eyes of an individual…. and the period just prior to and during the Civil War was truly the awakening of photography, such that these images tell a story as significant as battle reports, letters, or books.
I explain all of this to proudly debut my first (of many, I hope) article to appear in Military Images magazine. MI is one of the foremost historical publications in existence today, and the only one whose exclusive focus is the study of photographs of Civil War soldiers. I began my journey here when I discovered (rediscovered?) an albumen print of Lieutenant Otway Berryman of the United States Navy. Prior to obtaining this image, I had never heard his name mentioned. But he was a Virginian, and that interested me, and I quickly learned he died at the outbreak of hostilities. That also piqued my curiosity. Armed with this information, I began a quest some eight months ago researching this “unknown” naval officer. What I learned from that research moved me so much that I knew his story needed to be told. So this article is the culmination of that research, and from my perspective, a tribute to Lt. Berryman and his service. For those of you who already subscribe to Military Images, I hope you enjoy the article. If you do not, but are interested in such history, please check out their website, and consider a subscription. The current issue can be purchased, as well as subscriptions from the following link.
I cannot conclude without also thanking my family and my dear wife who tolerated my many hours locked away in research, and ultimately for her critique of this article. I also knew that if I was going to write for a scholarly publication, I needed to run this article by historians and image collectors who not only had previously contributed to MI, but whose advice (and criticism) I knew would make this a better read. Those gentlemen include my dear friends Rusty Hicks, William Stier, and Doug York. Finally, I cannot say enough about the courtesy and professionalism extended to me by MI Editor and Publisher Ron Coddington who truly helped bring this story to life with his recommendations as we drafted our way through to the final version.
Statement by: Colonel Greg Eanes, USAF (Retired)
Governor Terry McAuliffe’s veto of HB 587, the clarifying language to Virginia’s war memorial protection law has no impact on existing state code. The Governor’s veto of HB587 only means the state code may at some point be tested in a court of law at great financial expense to localities and the taxpayers of those localities.
HB 587 was meant only to clarify existing state code to say in plain language that Virginia’s war memorial protections law encompasses all war memorials regardless of when they were built. The current law implies in language, logic and context that this is already the case. However, a Danville judge last year, in a case in which he ruled the law did not apply, observed the law might be misinterpreted and should be clarified by the General Assembly.
Veterans of Foreign Wars (VFW) Post 7819 in Crewe and veterans from other VFW, American Legion and American Veterans (AMVETS) posts requested language to clarify the law. HB 587 was requested by American military veterans. Delegate Charles Poindexter rose to the occasion to sponsor that legislation. The bill was actively and publicly supported by the Department of Virginia VFW, the Department of Virginia AMVETS, the 5th District American Legion, the Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War, the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States and the Virginia Department of Historic Resources.
Virginia’s existing law has protected our war memorials sparing communities needless discord and saving millions in litigation dollars. HB 587 was meant to ensure such would remain the case. The General Assembly clarified the existing state code’s intent. Regardless of the Governor’s veto, the General Assembly’s clarification is now a matter of public record.
In honoring our gallant war dead, veteran service organizations do not discriminate on one’s period or place of service or the often divisive politics surrounding the various wars. Politics has no place as men and women served and serve where they are called. This includes Confederate veterans who are, by law, custom and practice, American veterans. All American veterans are treated equally. What impacts one, impacts all.
Our honored dead cannot speak for themselves therefore we the living must speak on their behalf. Virginia’s veterans have done so by asking for and supporting HB 587.
Veteran’s service organizations (VSO) have been involved in a number of costly and litigious war memorial preservation fights across the country in recent years. Among these:
- In 1994 the Air Force Association, joined by other VSOs, fought to correct a politically motivated Smithsonian interpretation of World War II’s Enola Gay, the plane that dropped the first atomic bomb. The political activists tried to depict the United States as evil and the Japanese as victims;
- In 2015 the American Legion was successful in protecting Bladensburg, Maryland World War I Veterans Memorial. Atheists wanted to either “demolish” the memorial or deface it by cutting off the arms of the cross to make it a “slab” citing the shape of the Christian cross was offensive. The American Legion spokesman said, “We’ll continue to defend this veteran’s memorial to see that it stands for another hundred years. The men it honors, others who have served, and those in uniform today deserve no less.”
- In 2015, after 25 years of costly litigation, the Veterans of Foreign Wars was successful in protecting the Mount Soledad Veterans Memorial Cross, a Korean War memorial in San Diego.
Elsewhere Vietnam memorials have been vandalized and one has been taken down while two war memorials in Hawaii (one each for World War I and World War II) are targeted for destruction so the space can be used for economic development. These incidents, and many others across the country, illustrate an intolerant mindset that has threatened and continues to threaten American war memorials and the memory of the American veteran.
Every major veteran service organization has a memorial and remembrance component to their charters. Preserving and protecting American war memorials is a ‘veteran’ issue.
 Eanes is the Action Officer for Veterans of Foreign Wars Post 7819 and a mayoral candidate in the Town of Crewe.
January 19, 2016
by Jenny Gray
On the morning of April 9, 1865, men from the Roanoke Valley fought in the Battle of Appomattox Court House, the final engagement of the Army of North Virginia before surrendering — and thus ending — the Civil War.
The Confederate capital of Richmond, Va., was lost to the South. Retreat was cut off by Union forces. Losing that morning battle brought General Robert E. Lee to the courthouse that afternoon where he signed the documents of surrender and gave up his sword.
Standing there was the company that included members from Halifax, Warren and Northampton counties. Now an area historian wants to know what made them tick.
Attorney, historian and author, Fred Taylor grew up visiting his grandmother on the banks of the Roanoke River. His forefathers operated Eaton’s Ferry, and somewhere along the line he learned of the Roanoke Minute Men, a Littleton-area militia that formed before the Civil War, and fought in that war from the start to the finish.
“For me personally, I’ve always been a history buff,” Taylor said during a recent visit in which he gathered more research on this militia. “A lot of people think history’s boring. It’s abstract. It happened 100 years ago.”
But that’s not how Taylor said he feels. Following in the footsteps of a family member, he started building on the family genealogy about two decades ago and was hooked.
“All this history comes back to my own family,” he said. “My dad grew up on the Roanoke River, and later, Lake Gaston. My grandfather pulled Eaton’s Ferry.”
Then along came the story of the Roanoke Minute Men and Taylor’s hobby turned into something more serious.
“My first big find was the diary of a soldier during the Civil War, and I was related to him,” Taylor said. “I started reading that and seeing how these guys fit into a bigger story.”
His hunt began in earnest last spring as he read more and more accounts of this band of local soldiers. Taylor has assembled a detailed roster of the Company including individual service records and period letters and accounts from the early day of the company, formed in 1864. He has corresponded with and met Roanoke Minute Men descendants and visited state and local archives, gathering more information.
He learned that the Company was among the first to serve in the Civil War.
“They formed as a militia just before the Civil War and eventually went from Littleton to Weldon, and then over to Garysburg to train,” Taylor said. “One-hundred and forty men ended up serving in the unit.”
Taylor said while his book will include military information, that’s not the goal. Troop movements during the Civil War are well documented, but to get to the heart of his subject, Taylor said he wants to make it personal.
“My preference is not talking about battles or generals; I’d like to know more about these soldiers,” he said.
The initial diary, Taylor added, wasn’t about war, per se. It was about how the soldier felt.
“He talked about love and poetry and there were some religious overtones,” Taylor said of the diary. “I don’t think any soldier can be in battle without getting a little closer to their maker.”
Most of these soldiers had never gone more than a few miles from home, Taylor said, and must have been frightened at times.
“My focus has been trying to emphasize their story — that life of the enlisted soldier who left family and loved ones and marched off hundreds of miles away to face enormous odds,” he added. “I think this sort of veterans’ story strikes a chord with anyone, regardless of age or race or what war we are discussing, or even whether or not they like history.”
To gather information, Taylor travels as often as he can while still managing his law practice in Suffolk, Va. He also has used the Internet, creating a website at: fredonhistory.com/roanoke-minute-men
Taylor, whose roots go back to the Jamestown Colony, also has a Facebook presence at www.facebook.com/roanokeminutemen.
Anyone from the Littleton area will recognize many of the surnames on the list of soldiers: Allen, Bobbitt, Holt, Kearney and Newsom, among others.
“Their average age was about 25 years old; literally every 18 to 40 year old, able-bodied man went,” Taylor said. “I’m gong to tell the big picture but I want these people to speak for themselves. And I want to be able to tell what was going on at home.”
He spoke of one of the company’s members, a black soldier named Hilliard Goings. Taylor said he was close to his fellow soldiers, including Newsom Jenkins.
“He served as a pallbearer at his funeral, and went to all the veterans’ reunions,” Taylor said of Goings. “I want to cover it all, and find the motivation to what prompts a young man to leave home and stability to go fight for four years. And what was the effect of that on their families. … I want to get down into the heart of that.”
So Taylor is asking people to help him find these photographs, diaries and letters. For more information about the Roanoke Minute Men project, or to make submissions to this effort, contact Taylor at firstname.lastname@example.org, telephone at 757-705-0950, or by mail to: 160 West Washington St., Suffolk, VA. 23434. All submissions will be properly credited to the owner, he said.
By Fred D. Taylor
For decades, a number of Taylor family researchers have worked tirelessly to determine the parents of Lewis B. Taylor of Brunswick County, Virginia, who was born circa 1772 and died before December 1831.
When my father and I first began our own family tree quest in the early 1990s, this mystery was a source of almost heated debate among our cousins, spanning from family researchers very close to the source in Brunswick County, all the way out to the West Coast, and everywhere in between. To say the search was both dedicated and committed is an understatement. Countless hours were spent by dozens of individuals in libraries and courthouses across Virginia and North Carolina in hopes of untangling this genealogical roadblock. From there, professional genealogists were employed to put an independent set of eyes on the project. When that failed (or rather, did not succeed), researchers in the family decided a new route – that of DNA testing, at that time (the mid 2000s) a research tool in its infancy.
Through all of that, the ultimate goal of learning more about Lewis B. Taylor, and more importantly his parents, remained elusive. During this time and up to recent years, I remained in the peripheral of this research, occasionally touching base with family across the country to see if they had uncovered any new leads of interest. We also discussed the DNA aspect, as it was becoming trendy, but that seemed to be nothing more than the latest rabbit hole for genealogists.
For some years, I remained out of the loop, but in 2013 decided to renew my own research on the family. My first objective was to not simply rely on everyone else’s records, or rather, their assumptions about certain information. This is something I see all too often in the genealogical world. Instead, I wanted to find the actual documentation of a certain fact, or at least be able to back-track a source to its origin. The best example I can offer in this scenario is the name itself of our subject, Lewis B. Taylor. For years, I had been told that his full name was Lewis Ball Taylor. However, when it comes to the records for him, no court record, legal document, or other period account supports this. Instead, what we find is Lewis B. Taylor or Lewis Taylor or L.B. Taylor. So where did the Ball name come from? From what I can now tell, it came from an assumption within the family that the “B.” in Lewis B. was Ball, because of the fact that he had a grand-daughter whose name was Minerva Ball Taylor and a great-grandson named Benjamin Ball Taylor. Down the road, while we certainly may learn that Ball is his middle name, without more at this time, it is only conjecture.
But I digress from the main topic of this story.
In addition to starting from scratch on the research aspect of Lewis B. Taylor’s history, I finally convinced myself that it was time to do more with the DNA angle. At that time, there had been one Lewis B. Taylor family descendant to contribute to the Taylor Family Project at Family Tree DNA. To give those of you a little background on this project, I will quote from their website directly:
“The Taylor Family Genes Project (TFG) — with more than 700 members — is the largest and best Taylor Surname DNA project offered by any DNA testing company. For a common, multi-origin surname like Taylor, database size matters; it increases your chances of finding a match within the project. Having begun in late 2003, we have members with various DNA tests and are growing daily. Among our >550 members with more than 12 markers of Y-DNA results, we have identified ~80 genetic Taylor families and more than 300 unique haplotypes (individual family lines).”
When it comes to DNA research like this, size matters, and this project is THE project if you want to be serious about your Taylor family origins.
Unfortunately though, even with this kind of resource at our disposal, our one Taylor DNA submittal had turned up no matches to any other Taylors. Despite this, I decided that it would not hurt for me to submit as well, so at the very least we would know that our “control” subject for descendants of Lewis B. Taylor was accurate. We also decided to upgrade the test for our early DNA submission. Originally, he had only been tested at the Y-25 level, which while cutting edge at the time, was a less than helpful tool a decade later.
So what did we find out? Well, not surprisingly, our original submission and I came back as the highest matches for each other. For easier reference, I will refer to him as Taylor Test One.
To give you an idea of how this works, of Taylor Test One’s 111 Y markers tested, I tested as an exact match for 108 of them. This is highly significant, as in scientific terms it carries a 78% chance of a common ancestor within the last 8 generations and 91% within the last 10 generations. This testing also confirmed some of our “paper” genealogy, as we came from two different branches of the Lewis B. Taylor line, specifically: Taylor Test One was a descendant of William Ney Murat Taylor (1816-1896) and I am a descendant of John W. Taylor (1797 – ca. 1870s).
I will also note for you DNA nerds out there that we are labeled as Group 81 in the Taylor Family Genes Project, with the R1b group designation, and the R1b1a2 sub-clade. Advanced Y-DNA testing also has the ability to dig beyond the R1b1a2 designation into further sub-classes, and specific SNP mutations that we share with smaller groups of people. Think of it as a family tree descendancy chart. Now I can go into a lot more detail here about the various sub-clades (and their designations) that we match up to (there are thousands), but at the end of the day, our classification comes down to a group designated as Z-253 and below that, FGC3222. [Now, end of the scientific/DNA details.]
Unfortunately, while our DNA testing (at this point) has turned up no other direct Taylor family matches, it has allowed us to start eliminating some other Taylor families who resided in and around Brunswick County in the 18-19th Century. This is a biggie for genealogical research, as it allows us to exclude some of those rabbit holes we had been chasing for decades. So here is who we are NOT related to or descended from:
- The Edward Taylor (1722-1784) and Jesse Taylor (1752-1800) Families of Brunswick County… In a prominent and often cited discussion on Genealogy.com, Taylor family historian Ed Dittmer theorized that Lewis Ball Taylor could be a son of Jesse Taylor. This was a great lead, based on the dates, location, and the fact that LBT had a son named Jesse. However, DNA data proved this to be incorrect, as confirmed “paper” genealogy and later DNA showed that descendants of Jesse Taylor (specifically, Jesse Major Taylor (b. 1798) and George Edward Taylor (b. 1797/98)) are from the Y-DNA group I-M253. They have been separately designated in the Taylor Family Genes Project as I1-001 Group 01, and appear to descend from Robert Taylor of Rappahannock County, Virginia, circa 1688. See http://www.taylorfamilygenes.info/groups/grp_001.shtml for more information about this line.
- The Thomas Taylor (1750/60–1820) and Benjamin Taylor (1780-1853) Families of Lunenburg, Brunswick, and Mecklenburg Counties and Elsewhere… Again, another prominent family that we originally believed that LBT may have had a connection to due to ages and similar family names. Upon the submission of a Y-DNA sample from a descendant of this line, however, it was determined that this line has a Y-DNA of I-M270, and appear to descend from the Rev. Daniel Taylor, Sr. (ca. 1664-1729) of New Kent and King William Counties, Virginia.
- The James Taylor, Jr. (1770-1827) of Mecklenburg Family. This was another potential “hope” of ours, as this family spread across Brunswick and Mecklenburg Counties, as well as into Halifax County, NC, in the late 18th Again, we met a roadblock, as the DNA submission from a descendant of this line determined that this family has a Y-DNA of R1b-M269, with the Western Atlantic Modal Haplotype, and have as their most distant paternal ancestor, John Taylor (1627-1702) of Northumberland County, Virginia. This line has been separately designated in the Taylor Family Genes Project as R1b-091 Group 91.
- The James Taylor (1642-1698) Family (which includes the Rev. Lewis B. Taylor of Granville County, North Carolina). This is probably the most notable of Taylor families, and the one that many Taylors claim and wish to be descended from, as this includes the lines of such notables as Presidents James Madison and Zachary Taylor, among many others. However, the reality is that very few are connected to this line, and ours is one of them that certainly is not. This line is designated as group R1b-002 Group 2 in the Taylor Family Genes Project, and more information about this line can be found at: http://www.taylorfamilygenes.info/groups/grp_002.shtml
[Note: *Currently, we are testing two possible Taylor candidates through DNA submission (and with Brunswick & Mecklenburg County ancestry), with the hope that we may find a match to our Lewis B. Taylor family line.*]
Now, where does that leave us?
Much like those dedicated researchers before us, I and many other continue on our quest to discover new information about Lewis B. Taylor. This has come with some reward. For one, we have been able to locate the lands owned by Lewis B. Taylor that were situated in the White Plains area of Brunswick County, and discovered that his home place still exists. While we do not know for sure, it is very likely that he is buried on this property.
Similarly, focused research on those period documents that relate to Lewis B. Taylor help to tell us more about the man himself, and his family. For instance, an inventory of his Estate after his death, and recorded at the Clerk’s Office of the Brunswick County Circuit Court on December 31, 1831, relate that his personal property included such items as English furniture, numerous books, pictures, and a looking glass. Based on other Court records, we also know that Lewis B. Taylor could read and write, had vast vocational skills that included carpentry and farming, and that he was very active in his community. Unfortunately, those bits of information do not answer for us where and when he was born, his family, or even details about his upbringing. Our earliest record of him comes to us from Brunswick County in 1793, so we can presume he was “of age” at that time, but we know little else.
For now, I have kept a log of “field notes” about Lewis B. Taylor, of which I share with you today in the file Lewis B. Taylor Notes – Jan 10 2016.
With this story, I hope to not only draw more interest from those already researching the Taylor family (and specifically Lewis B. Taylor), but cross my fingers that this information and that which remains to be discovered will lead us to eventually unraveling the mystery of Lewis B. Taylor of Brunswick County.
Have questions? Want to aid in the search? Please contact me! email@example.com
As Thanksgiving is just days away, I decided to change the pace away from simply discussing someone of local significance or an historic battle, and talk a little about the history of the first English Thanksgiving in America.
While most school children in the last few weeks have been performing plays celebrating that spectacular gathering between the Pilgrims and the Indians, the truth of the matter is they got it all wrong. Gasp! Yes, I’m here popping the bubble of all the little kids who dressed up in their pilgrim hats and buckled shoes, or Indian headdresses, to tell the story the history books didn’t want them to know…
Despite popular American nostalgia that the first Thanksgiving was held by the Pilgrims after the arrival of the Mayflower at Plymouth Rock, it actually had its beginnings just a few miles from us along the James River at present-day Berkeley (pronounced Bark-lee) Plantation in Charles City County.
The year was 1619, twelve years after the establishment of Jamestown, when a group of thirty-eight settlers aboard the ship Margaret arrived after having made a ten-week journey across the Atlantic. Upon their landing, they knelt and prayed on the rich Tidewater soil, with their Captain John Woodlief proclaiming:
“Wee ordaine that the day of our ships arrivall at the place assigned for plantacion in the land of Virginia shall be yearly and perpetually keept holy as a day of thanksgiving to Almighty God.”
As historically recorded, this event was the first English Thanksgiving in the New World. So why the big deal about the Pilgrims and the first Thanksgiving being at Plymouth Rock? Good question. Some historians follow the trail to northern-written textbooks (after the War Between the States, of course), but even then anything more than a cursory study of colonial history will lead one to the discrepancy between the dates of the first Thanksgiving. Yet, we continue today to recognize the Plymouth Thanksgiving as the first, despite the clear evidence to the contrary. In fact, the irony of all ironies is that not only did Virginia’s Thanksgiving celebration occur before the one in Massachusetts, the Pilgrims had not even landed in America yet! The Pilgrims arrival would come one year and seventeen days later in 1620, and their Thanksgiving celebration nearly two years later in 1621.
Celebrations of “thanksgiving” would become a deeply rooted American tradition though, usually brought on by periods of great hardship. During the American Revolution, the Continental Congress proclaimed days of Thanksgiving every year from 1778 to 1784. Likewise, George Washington issued the first Presidential proclamation of Thanksgiving in 1789, and a few of his successors followed suit. Interestingly, Thanksgiving was not a specific day or even month, and apparently was issued on the whim of whoever was in office. Sporadically between the years 1789 and 1815, days of Thanksgiving were recognized in January, March, April, October, and November. This recognition of Thanksgiving ended in 1815 following the term of President James Madison, and a President would not issue such a proclamation for another forty-six years.
That President was Jefferson F. Davis, who recognized a day of thanks, humiliation, and prayer for the young Confederate States of America for October 31st, 1861. Not to be outdone, President Abraham Lincoln resurrected the forgotten day in the United States as well, and issued a similar proclamation in April of 1862. In 1863, Thanksgiving was made a national holiday, and in 1866, the tradition of recognizing Thanksgiving on the fourth Thursday of November was started by President Andrew Johnson.
From that time on, every sitting President has recognized Thanksgiving as a national holiday. Nonetheless, the twists in the story continue. While the recognition of the holiday has been uninterrupted since 1861, the explanations of the origins of Thanksgiving have been numerous. For years, the residents of the Oval Office ignored Virginia’s claim to the first Thanksgiving, but that all changed in 1963. It took a Massachusetts Yankee by the name of John F. Kennedy to take the risk of alienating his constituency back home to tell the rest of the story. President Kennedy honored Massachusetts’s and Virginia’s claim in his proclamations of 1963 at the urgency of his Special Assistant Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., a noted historian and political scientist. After Kennedy’s death, President Johnson mentioned Virginia twice, President Jimmy Carter recognized it in 1979, and the last to recognize Virginia’s claim was President Ronald Reagan in 1985.
Today, the struggle to tell the true story of Thanksgiving continues in classrooms across America, and even more so here at home in Virginia where it all started. For several years now, a group of concerned citizens have organized an annual event to celebrate the First Thanksgiving at Berkeley, and each year they recreate that historic event on the shores of the James River.
In the wake of America’s 400th Anniversary in 2007, the necessity to tell the real Thanksgiving story is all the more important. So as you prepare for Thanksgiving this year, take a few minutes to reflect on this story, and to pass this tidbit of history along to others. Every little bit helps in getting the truth out. As for me this year, I’ve certainly got plenty to be thankful for, but in honour of those courageous thirty-eight who arrived on the shores of Virginia in 1619, I’ll be substituting my turkey and stuffing for Smithfield Ham and Chesapeake Bay Oysters.
Press Release from the City of Suffolk Division of Tourism
VIRGINIA’S CIVIL WAR 150 HISTORY MOBILE
ROLLING INTO HISTORIC DOWNTOWN SUFFOLK
SUFFOLK, VA (March 3, 2015) History is on the move in Virginia as the Civil War 150 HistoryMobile rolls into Suffolk for a two day visit on Friday, March 13th, and Saturday, March 14th, from 10:00 a.m. until 5:00 p.m. both days. The exhibit, an initiative of the Virginia Sesquicentennial of the American Civil War Commission, will be located at the Suffolk Visitor Center, 524 North Main Street. Admission to the HistoryMobile is free and open to the public. These “history days” are presented by the Suffolk Division of Tourism partnering with the Suffolk Public Library, Riddick’s Folly House Museum and the Hilton Garden Inn Suffolk Riverfront.
In addition to the HistoryMobile exhibit, the event also includes tours and a living history reenactment at Riddick’s Folly House Museum; guided tours of historic Downtown Suffolk and the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge; and a genealogy workshop and a history presentation. Stop by the Historic Seaboard Station Railroad Museum to browse the large selection of Historical Society publications and learn about the importance and history of railroads in Suffolk while viewing the HO scale railroad model of 1907 Suffolk.
The HistoryMobile uses immersive spaces and interactive exhibits to draw together stories of the Civil War and emancipation from the viewpoints of those who experienced it across Virginia—young and old, enslaved and free, soldier and civilian. Visitors will encounter history in ways they may have never experienced before. The HistoryMobile exhibit is divided into four sections: Battlefront, Homefront, Journey to Freedom, and Loss-Gain-Legacy. From the bewildering sense of chaos experienced by soldiers, to the last letter written by a dying son to his father after sustaining a mortal wound, to a hushed conversation between a husband and wife considering the great risks and rewards of fleeing to freedom, the HistoryMobile presents the stories of real people in Virginia whose lives were shaped by the historic events of the 1860s, and invites visitors to imagine, “What Would You Do?”
The Civil War 150 HistoryMobile crosses the state visiting museums, schools, and special events. Its tour began in July 2011, and since then it has made over 120 stops and attracted visitors from every state and a number of other countries.
In addition to learning more about Virginia’s history, the HistoryMobile also provides visitors with information from Virginia Tourism about the many historic sites and destinations that they can explore today.
Admission to the Virginia Civil War 150 HistoryMobile is free and open to the public. For additional information on event happenings in conjunction with the HistoryMobile visit such as tour reservations, associated costs and times contact the Suffolk Visitor Center at 757-514-4130 or firstname.lastname@example.org. Space is limited on tours. Advance reservations are required.
Friday, March 13, 2015 Activities
10am-5pm HistoryMobile open to schools and public
10am-4pm Riddick’s Folly House Museum open for hourly tours ($5 per person)
10am Washington Ditch Boardwalk Guided Walk ($5 per person; reservations required)
11am-4pm Suffolk Seaboard Station Railroad Museum open to public for tours (donation)
12pm Great Dismal Swamp’s Underground Railroad Network to Freedom Pavilion Tour ($5 per person; reservations required)
3pm Historic Downtown Narrated Bus Tour ($5 per person, reservations required)
6pm Legends of Main Street: A Suffolk Ghost Walk ($10 per person; reservations required)
Saturday, March 14, 2015 Activities
10am-5pm HistoryMobile open to public
10am-4pm Riddick’s Folly House Museum open for hourly tours ($5 per person)
10am-4pm Period reenactments on the grounds of Riddick’s Folly (free)
10am-1pm Genealogy Workshop with the “Daughters of the American Revolution” at Morgan Memorial Library
10am Washington Ditch Boardwalk Guided Walk ($5 per person; reservations required)
10am-3pm Suffolk Seaboard Station Railroad Museum open to public for tours (donation)
12pm Great Dismal Swamp’s Underground Railroad Network to Freedom Pavilion Tour ($5 per person; reservations required)
2pm-3pm “The Battle of Suffolk: Through Soldier’s Letters,” a presentation by Kermit Hobbs at Morgan Memorial Library
3pm Historic Downtown Narrated Bus Tour ($5 per person, reservations required)
6pm Legends of Main Street: A Suffolk Ghost Walk ($10 per person; reservations required)
In my previous column, Charles Henry Causey had seen capture and parole, an assignment with the Confederate States Secret Service, and ultimately, an appointment to the command of Major General George Pickett. In this last and final column, I will relate Causey’s final days of the war, and how a young man born in Delaware ended up making Suffolk his home.
By 1864, Charles Henry Causey had clearly found his niche and spent the remainder of the war as a scout and member of the famed Confederate Secret Service, working both in Pickett’s command and also through the War Department. Not surprisingly, his entire record remains a bit of an enigma due such secret and dangerous operations. Though a scant number of military service records, official reports, and letters do exist, for the most part Causey’s activities from 1861 to 1865 remain obscure. When the National Archives compiled these records, they too noticed the irregularity of his “official” assignments. In a statement filed by one of the records compilers, it was noted that there was “a slight endeavor on the part of Confederate authorities to make it appear that this man was on Signal Duty.” However, there was “no indication that he knew anything of a signal code, or of any action except as a scout or spy.” It was also pointed out that his support by General Pickett in 1863 was clearly emphatic as to the importance of his services, but “makes no mention of what they are.”
The one thing that is known is that Charles Henry Causey’s role in the Tidewater area certainly had a lasting effect on his life. Apparently, during his time scouting in the Suffolk region he had the opportunity to meet the young Martha Josephine Prentis, daughter of Peter Bowdoin and Eliza Wrenn Prentis. Martha was eighteen when Causey met her in 1863, and their relationship blossomed from those occasions when he could avoid the roaming Union cavalry parties that passed through Suffolk in 1864. Despite the infrequency of their meetings in the midst of a raging war, they decided to take their courtship to the next level by the fall of that year. On September 26, 1864, Charles Henry Causey and Martha Josephine Prentis were married in Suffolk. But their time together was anything but a honeymoon, and was abruptly curtailed due to the dismal outlook of the Confederate army. By the winter of 1864, Union General Grant had placed a stranglehold on Lee’s army, and the Signal Corps’ operations were limited to Pickett’s thin defenses on the south side of Petersburg. Causey did manage to slip in and out of enemy lines and continue his reconnaissance work in the Tidewater region, but for the most part his previous services were no longer needed with the Confederate capital under siege. In April of 1865, when Petersburg and Richmond were evacuated, Causey was presumably in the Tidewater area and was not with the army during Lee’s retreat or subsequent surrender at Appomattox. Instead, he turned himself in to Federal authorities two weeks later on April 25, and was given a parole under the terms agreed upon by Lee and Grant.
Upon his parole, Charles Henry Causey returned for his bride in Suffolk, and started a family. Their first child, William Bowdoin Causey, was born on June 11, 1865, and named for Charles Henry’s brother and Martha’s father. Their second child was a daughter, Marianna Causey, born in 1866, and the Causey family continued to grow with the birth of Charles Henry Causey, Jr., born in 1868; Peter Prentis Causey, born in 1872; James Campbell Causey, born in 1874; Margaret Webb Causey, born in 1876; and Josephine Causey, born in 1878. Records indicate two more children who died in infancy, but their names are unknown.
Besides the growth of his family, Charles Henry Causey’s law practice also took a turn for the better following the end of Reconstruction in 1870 and the removal of Federal troops from Virginia. Among his clients included the Atlantic and Danville Railroad, as well as the Seaboard Airline Railroad, putting him in almost daily contact with his fellow Confederate comrade, General Laurence Simmons Baker who served as railroad agent in Suffolk. This also gave Causey the opportunity to befriend former Confederate General William Mahone, a prominent railroad builder and the president of several railroad lines. It was through Mahone that Causey became active in state politics.
In the late 1870s, Mahone became the leader of a somewhat unpopular group at the time known as the Readjuster party, which sought to lower Virginia’s prewar debt. This group was a coalition of Democrats, Republicans, and African-Americans opposed to the Conservative Democrat platform that most ex-Confederates aligned themselves with. In 1881 though, the Readjuster Party won control of the Governor’s Mansion with the election of William A. Cameron, and swept a number of seats in the Virginia General Assembly. Charles Henry Causey supported these reform policies of Mahone, and became an active member of the Readjuster Party as a result. In return for his support, Causey was named Clerk of the Virginia Senate in December of 1881, appointed to the Board of the Eastern Lunatic Asylum in 1882, and served as Commonwealth’s Attorney for Suffolk.
However, party politics would again change in the Old Dominion, and the Readjuster Party could not hold together its coalition of minority parties in order to stay in power. Sensing the change in the political climate, Mahone made the bold move of aligning himself and the Adjuster Party with the Republican Party in 1884. This created quite a storm in the state, as many considered then (and some still do today) the Republican Party as the “Party of Lincoln.” As a result, a number of citizens ostracized Mahone and other ex-Confederates like Causey as scalawags, but in reality the Virginia electorate remained split fifty-fifty.
Locally, a number of Nansemond County and Suffolk citizens voted Republican in the 1880s. It was through their support that Charles Henry Causey became the first Republican elected from Suffolk to the Virginia State Senate in 1884. Charles Henry Causey served in the Senate until his term expired in 1887, and also became a Republican elector for the 2nd Congressional District.
Besides his political activities, Charles Henry Causey was also a prominent Mason and Odd Fellow, and an active member of the Pickett-Buchanan Camp of the United Confederate Veterans based in Norfolk. At the time, the Tom Smith Camp in Suffolk had yet to be formed, and a number of Suffolk’s Confederate veterans held membership in the Norfolk camp.
In August of 1890, sickness struck Charles Henry Causey, and he was ill but for a few days when he suddenly passed away at 10:30 PM on Wednesday, August 27, at the young age of fifty-three years. His death was announced in both the Suffolk and Norfolk newspapers, and came as a great shock to the community and all that knew him. Prior to his passing, he had often remarked that he wished his funeral to be conducted by his comrades in the Pickett-Buchanan Camp, and per his wish, the old veterans of that group organized on the day of his funeral. Due to his position as attorney for the Atlantic and Danville Railroad, the railroad offered a special train car from Norfolk to carry the Confederate veterans to Suffolk as they paid the last honors to their fallen comrade.
Captain Charles Henry Causey was laid to rest in Cedar Hill Cemetery on Friday, August 29, 1890. He left a wife, and five children. Of those, all rose to some prominence in the community, with Charles Henry Causey, Jr., and James Campbell Causey serving with the 4th Virginia Infantry from Suffolk during the Spanish-American War, William Bowdoin Causey serving as a Lieutenant Colonel of Engineers in World War I, and Peter Prentis Causey becoming a noted local doctor. There is no doubt that a respect and reverence for military service was instilled in the hearts and minds of the Causey children, especially in Charles Henry Causey, Jr. He rose to the rank of Captain during the Spanish-American War, and it was through his efforts that following the war Suffolk Post No. 57 of the American Legion was organized in our city.
Clearly, the accomplishments of his children were a reflection on the character and example left by Charles Henry Causey. Yet, no greater testimony can be said of his life than the one given by the Norfolk Virginian newspaper (today’s Virginian-Pilot) at the time of his death:
“He was a prominent citizen of Suffolk, foremost in all enterprises, looking to the advancement of the section in which he lived, and his loss will be keenly felt…He was a good husband, an affectionate father and a devoted friend.”
At the close of the last column, Lieutenant Charles Henry Causey had received a rather favorable recommendation for promotion from Major General John Bankhead Magruder. This letter asked of the Secretary of War that Causey be given the rank of Major, and placed in command of a battalion of cavalry that was being mustered into Confederate service in North Carolina, where he was stationed at the time.
Yet, that was not to be the fate of Causey. Instead, he was promoted to the rank of Captain in November of 1862, and ordered once again to report to General Magruder, who was by then stationed in San Antonio, Texas. From the records available, it appears that Causey never made it to Texas as ordered, but managed to get his assignment once again changed. By the close of 1862, he was serving on the staff of Major General Arnold Elzey, Commander of the Department of Richmond, responsible for defending the Confederate capital. Causey’s scouting services were once again employed in his new position, but were quickly interrupted in January of 1863. Unfortunately, the records do not indicate how it occurred, but Causey was captured and sent to Old Capital Prison in Washington, D.C. He spent about three months in prison, but was quickly exchanged and returned to Confederate service by April.
Upon his return, Charles Henry Causey was assigned to duty under Major William Norris, Commander of the Confederate States Signal Corps, and also a former staff officer under Magruder. For the most part, the signal service was a team of signal “flagmen” who used flags during the day and torches by night to replicate the Morse code system of dots then used with the telegraph system. Most importantly, this signal system found great use on the battlefield between distant units, as well as across large rivers that made the use of couriers or water-passage impossible. However, while the Signal Corps operated out of a modest office in downtown Richmond, in reality its back room was the home of the Confederate Secret Service office, where a much greater degree of intelligence was relayed. Here, valuable information was disseminated, usually in secret code, from operatives as far away as New York City and Europe.
Though assigned to service with the “Signal Corps,” it is more likely that Charles Henry Causey was as an agent with the more covert Secret Service. Specifically, his assignment was for duty on the lower James River, which by that point in the war was completely under the occupation of the Union army. His headquarters and rendezvous point was located across the James River, near Burwell’s Bay and Fort Boykin in Smithfield, a relative safe-haven given the nearby 20,000 Confederate troops involved in the Siege of Suffolk at the time. Each night, or as often as possible, Causey would cross the James River to meet with other agents and friendly Southerners within the Federal lines. On his first crossing on April 11 of 1863, Causey returned to Smithfield with valuable information as to Union troop movements on the Peninsula, including information as to whether reinforcements were being sent to Suffolk to block Confederate attempts to regain the city. By April 20, less than two weeks later, Causey had successfully breeched the enemy lines as far in as Fortress Monroe, and reported back to the Confederate War Department with copies of Yankee newspapers, troop strengths on the Peninsula and Suffolk, the number of rations being issued, and reports on the number of naval vessels in the James River.
Charles Henry Causey maintained this system of nightly trips across the James River up through fall of 1863. At that point, Causey fell out of favor with his Commander, Major Norris, and was told that his services were “no longer important.” However, Causey’s operations during the year had put him in contact with another important branch of the Secret Service, a group known as the Independent Signal Corps. This group, stationed exclusively in the Tidewater area was not under the command of Major Norris. Rather, it was led by Major James F. Milligan, who had actually taught Norris the signal codes & operations, but was passed over for appointment to the regular Signal Corps. Rather than create a rift between two powerful and important leaders in Signal Corps operations, the Confederate government allowed Milligan to maintain his Independent Signal Corps without ever having to report to Major Norris.
In his defense, Causey sought the support of Major General George Pickett, who he had worked with during the Siege of Suffolk campaign. In an October letter from his headquarters in North Carolina, Pickett stated that since April, Causey “has, with five assistants, organized a line of communication with the enemy’s line in vicinity of Fortress Monroe, and has to the present time obtained daily intelligence, the latest New York papers, and kept open mail communication with all parts of the North.” Ironically, the same day that Pickett issued this letter, he also appointed to his command Major James F. Milligan as his department’s chief signal officer. Not surprisingly, all of this opened up another bitter dispute between Major Norris, Major Milligan & the role of the Independent Signal Corps, and Major General Pickett. A week following Pickett’s letters, Norris again wrote to the Confederate high command that Causey’s services were no longer needed. Yet, this attempt to discredit Causey by Major Norris was in vain, as General Pickett made it clear in his last and final letter on the subject, stating that Captain Causey be ordered to report to him, that he was not in the Signal Corps, and that he be ordered to report for duty, “at these Hdqrs., irrespective of the Signal Corps and Major Norris.”
This ended any questions on the subject, and on November 6, 1863, Captain Charles Henry Causey was ordered to report to the famed leader Major General George Pickett at Petersburg for assignment to duty.
In my next column, read about Captain Causey’s last two years in Confederate service, his marriage, and his new life in Suffolk following the war.
Today when we think of intelligence operations, we are accustomed to hearing stories of James Bond and Britain’s MI-6, or our own Central Intelligence Agency. However, both of these groups found their early development in military operations and activities that had occurred many years before. In the United States, this developed through the Army’s signal service in the 1850s, and was quickly revolutionized during the War Between the States due to the necessity to quickly disseminate valuable information as to troop movements. Though many were involved in the day to day operations of the intelligence departments on both sides of this conflict, one figure stands out quite prominently. Though not a Suffolk native, the war and his activities brought him here, and eventually resulted in him making Suffolk his home.
Charles Henry Causey was born on July 14, 1837, in New Castle, Delaware. He was the oldest of three children born to the Maryland native William Causey and his Scottish-born wife, Mary Colvin. By the age of two, however, Charles Henry and the Causey family moved to Elizabeth City County (present day Hampton), presumably following a job opportunity offered to his father, who worked as an engineer. In the same year, the second child of the Causey family was born, William N. Causey; and in 1841, the third and final child, James Colvin Causey. As a young man, Charles Henry attended local schools and excelled in his studies. It was no surprise then when in the mid-1850s he was accepted to Waynesburg College (formerly Madison College) in Uniontown, Pennsylvania, a prominent Presbyterian affiliated school. Charles Henry graduated from Waynesburg in 1857, and returned to Virginia to seek a law degree from the University of Virginia. He graduated from UVA in 1859, but before starting his formal law practice, began teaching at a school in Elizabeth City County.
In less than a year though, the political atmosphere of Virginia and indeed the country completely changed. Following Lincoln’s call for troops to suppress the “rebellion” in the spring of 1861, the Commonwealth of Virginia seceded from the Union on the 17th of April by a vote of a special convention. One month later, the citizens of the state went to the polls, and voted overwhelmingly to secede, with the constituents of Elizabeth City County voting in favor of secession, 343-6. Despite their support for the Confederacy, however, Hampton was occupied by the Federal armies early on in the war due to its proximity to Fortress Monroe. In fact, on June 10 the first land battle of the war in Virginia was commenced from Hampton and occurred at Big Bethel in Newport News between Confederate forces under the command of Colonel John Bankhead Magruder and Union forces under General Benjamin “Beast” Butler. Though insignificant in numbers, this early battle was a sign of things to come for Virginia and the Peninsula.
In the meantime, military units were springing up all across the South enlisting young men to defend their homes and sweethearts. On June 24, having been forced away from Hampton as refugees, Charles Henry and his brother James Colvin Causey heeded the call for troops, and joined the Old Dominion Dragoons, Company B of the 3rd Virginia Cavalry. With his vast educational background, and knowledge of the Peninsula region, Charles Henry was detailed to serve as a scout for Colonel Magruder who was quickly throwing up a line of defenses in Newport News in order to protect the new Confederate Capital in Richmond from attack.
In October of 1861, Charles Henry Causey was conferred with a promotion to the rank of 2nd Lieutenant in the Confederate States Cavalry by President Jefferson F. Davis. Amazingly though, no records as to his particular assignment or unit are available with his promotion or included in his service records. Rather, he was issued a statement from his commander in the 3rd Virginia Cavalry announcing his promotion, and describing him as, “…5 ft. 8 in. high, dark complexion, dark eyes, dark hair, and by profession a farmer…” The only explanation to such a promotion and descriptive letter hint to Causey’s early service as a scout. Due to the nature of his work, affirming his position in Confederate military service was absolute necessary in the event of capture.
From February to July of 1862, military service records show Charles Henry Causey as serving on the staff of then General John B. Magruder. Magruder’s own records reflect this, and in a May report to General Robert E. Lee, Causey was commended as an officer “of great advantage to the service” and whose “intrepidity and enterprise have been in the highest degree conspicuous on every occasion.” With the help of Causey, and others on his staff with the knowledge of the area, General Magruder was able to hold the Union army at bay for a number of months, when in reality they were vastly outnumbered.
Following the Confederacy’s abandonment of the Peninsula, and subsequent fighting of the Seven Days Battles around Richmond, Magruder was transferred to the Department of Texas. Causey requested from Magruder to stay behind until which time he could gain an official transfer to a command closer to home, and the possibility of a promotion, if available. Being without a Command to report to, Causey was issued orders by the Adjutant General’s office to report to the North Carolina coast, a post he had first requested back in February of 1862 in the midst of the battle of Roanoke Island. With these orders, he was told to report to General Daniel Harvey Hill. More than likely, this was not his first interaction with Hill, as Hill had served for a number of months on the Peninsula during and after the Battle of Big Bethel. While Causey remained in North Carolina throughout the fall of 1862, he did not stop lobbying for the promotion which he believed had been long overdue. In September, Causey’s old friend Major General Magruder weighed in and sent a letter to the Secretary of War, George W. Randolph, urging for a promotion for his able Lieutenant.
Commenting on his abilities as a scout and reconnoitering officer, Magruder explained, “I was indebted to him during the Peninsula Campaign for valuable information as to the enemy’s numbers, position, movement, and designs. On one occasion and at a critical period… he volunteered to undertake the perilous task of penetrating the enemy’s lines and succeeded in getting into their rear and reported to me the information he obtained which proved to be valuable as to their numbers, position, etc. During this expedition which he undertook alone and on foot, he was nine days in the enemy’s lines and endured great hardships from hunger, fatigue, and exposure to cold & wet in the woods and marshes on the Peninsula.”
With such a high recommendation in hand, the future for Charles Henry Causey was destined to be interesting. In my upcoming columns, read how Causey found his way into the Confederate States Secret Service, and ultimately to his future home in Suffolk.